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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Nesv 7I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Nesjavísur 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 566.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonNesjavísur
678

Stǫng ‘standard’

stǫng (noun f.; °stangar, dat. -u; stangir/stengr): pole

[1] Stǫng: sǫng 325V, strǫng FskBˣ

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gylld ‘The gilded’

1. gylla (verb): gild

[1] gylld: so 75a, 78aˣ, Holm4, 325V, gyllt Kˣ, papp18ˣ, Holm2, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, 68, 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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þars ‘where we’

þars (conj.): where

[1] þars (‘þar er’): þá er 75a

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gengum ‘went’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[1] gengum: gengu 75a, 68, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

notes

[1] gengum ‘we ... went’: (a) The 1st pers. pl. gengum is the reading of the main ms. and others, and arguably the lectio difficilior, and hence is adopted here. If the correct reading, it continues the emphasis on the poet’s solidarity with the hirð ‘retinue’, and the warrior-kenning with base-word greiðendr ‘suppliers’ is in apposition to the subject ‘we’. (b) The 3rd pers. form gengu is a well-attested variant and is printed in Skj B and Skald.

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gunnlar ‘’

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gaunnla ‘’

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gonla ‘’

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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[2] Gǫndlar: gunna 325VI, 75a, gunnar 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325VII, ‘gaunnla’ Tóm, ‘gunnlar’ FskBˣ, ‘gonla’ FskAˣ

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[2] Gǫndlar: gunna 325VI, 75a, gunnar 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325VII, ‘gaunnla’ Tóm, ‘gunnlar’ FskBˣ, ‘gonla’ FskAˣ

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

[2] Gǫndlar: gunna 325VI, 75a, gunnar 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 325VII, ‘gaunnla’ Tóm, ‘gunnlar’ FskBˣ, ‘gonla’ FskAˣ

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

serks ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

[2] serks: serkjum R686ˣ

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

serks ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

[2] serks: serkjum R686ˣ

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

serks ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

[2] serks: serkjum R686ˣ

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

und ‘under’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

notes

[2] und merkjum ‘under the banners’: Evidently the king enjoyed the services of several merkismenn ‘standard-bearers’, a practice current from the C10th (Andersen 1977, 292).

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merkjum ‘the banners’

1. merki (noun n.; °-s: -): banner, sign

notes

[2] und merkjum ‘under the banners’: Evidently the king enjoyed the services of several merkismenn ‘standard-bearers’, a practice current from the C10th (Andersen 1977, 292).

Close

gnýs ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

gnýs ‘of the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

fyr ‘before’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[3] fyr: ‘for’ papp18ˣ, með Holm2, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

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gvfom ‘’

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greiðendr ‘suppliers’

greiðandi (noun m.): [suppliers]

kennings

greiðendr gnýs serks Gǫndlar,
‘suppliers of the din of the shirt of Gǫndul, ’
   = WARRIORS

the shirt of Gǫndul, → MAIL-SHIRT
the din of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
suppliers of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

á ‘onto’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[4] á: í Holm2, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, FskBˣ, FskAˣ

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skip ‘the ships’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

[4] skip: bauð 61

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reiðir ‘enraged’

4. reiðr (adj.; °superl. -astr): angry

[4] reiðir: reiðar 61, ‘riðir’ FskAˣ

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Þági ‘not then’

þági (adv.): [not then]

[5] Þági: þeygi R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, Tˣ, ‘þey[…]i’ U

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vas ‘It was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] vas: val 78aˣ

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sem ‘as if’

sem (conj.): as, which

[5] sem: om.

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6).

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þessum ‘these’

1. sjá (pron.; °gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir): this

[5] þessum: ‘þessor’ 68, þegnum 61

notes

[5] þessum ‘these’: Kock defends the reading þegnum ‘retainers, men’ by positing an apposition with heiðþegum (NN §1859, cf. §1853B), but the reading is poorly supported and can be explained as a scribal anticipation of the postponed indirect object heiðþegum. — [5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6).

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þessum ‘these’

1. sjá (pron.; °gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir): this

[5] þessum: ‘þessor’ 68, þegnum 61

notes

[5] þessum ‘these’: Kock defends the reading þegnum ‘retainers, men’ by positing an apposition with heiðþegum (NN §1859, cf. §1853B), but the reading is poorly supported and can be explained as a scribal anticipation of the postponed indirect object heiðþegum. — [5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6).

Close

þengils ‘of the prince’

þengill (noun m.): prince, ruler

[6] þengils: so Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, R, W, ‘þen’ Kˣ, þengil papp18ˣ, 972ˣ, þengill Tˣ, U

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6). — [6] þengils ‘of the prince’: This gen. could qualify strengjar ‘horse of the rope [SHIP]’ (l. 6), mjǫð ‘mead’ (l. 7), heiðþegum ‘retainers’ (l. 8, as assumed here), or indeed all three of these (Jesch 2001a, 236).

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þengils ‘of the prince’

þengill (noun m.): prince, ruler

[6] þengils: so Holm2, R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, R, W, ‘þen’ Kˣ, þengil papp18ˣ, 972ˣ, þengill Tˣ, U

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6). — [6] þengils ‘of the prince’: This gen. could qualify strengjar ‘horse of the rope [SHIP]’ (l. 6), mjǫð ‘mead’ (l. 7), heiðþegum ‘retainers’ (l. 8, as assumed here), or indeed all three of these (Jesch 2001a, 236).

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‘the horse’

jór (noun m.): stallion, steed

[6] jó: jós 325VII, jór Flat

kennings

jó strengjar
‘the horse of the rope, ’
   = SHIP

the horse of the rope, → SHIP

notes

[6] jó strengjar ‘the horse of the rope [SHIP]’: The sg. number of strengjar might suggest that the anchor- or mooring-rope is specially referred to (Jesch 2001a, 169). With the exception of KormǪ Lv 61/3V (Korm 82) strengmarr ‘rope-steed [SHIP]’, the word strengr is not attested in ship-kennings (cf. Poole 2005b, 187). Fsk (ÍF 29, 174), Hkr (ÍF 27, 65) and other sources report that Einarr þambarskelfir used an anchor-rope or anchor to rescue Sveinn, and, if true, this may have prompted the use of the word.

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stengjar ‘’

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strengjar ‘of the rope’

strengr (noun m.; °-jar; -ir): string, rope, bow-string

[6] strengjar: strengja 972ˣ, 73aˣ, Flat, stengjar Tóm, sprengir U

kennings

jó strengjar
‘the horse of the rope, ’
   = SHIP

the horse of the rope, → SHIP

notes

[6] jó strengjar ‘the horse of the rope [SHIP]’: The sg. number of strengjar might suggest that the anchor- or mooring-rope is specially referred to (Jesch 2001a, 169). With the exception of KormǪ Lv 61/3V (Korm 82) strengmarr ‘rope-steed [SHIP]’, the word strengr is not attested in ship-kennings (cf. Poole 2005b, 187). Fsk (ÍF 29, 174), Hkr (ÍF 27, 65) and other sources report that Einarr þambarskelfir used an anchor-rope or anchor to rescue Sveinn, and, if true, this may have prompted the use of the word.

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mjǫð ‘mead’

mjǫðr (noun m.; °dat. miði): mead

[7] mjǫð: corrected from ‘moð’ J2ˣ, með 68, mjǫk U

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6).

Close

fyr ‘before’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[7] fyr kveðju malma ‘before the greeting of metal weapons [BATTLE]’: If the prep. fyr has this straightforward temporal application, it is suited to the scene, the prelude to the battle. It could also perhaps be translated as ‘on account of’, ‘instead of’ or ‘in return for’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 204).

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malma ‘of metal weapons’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

[7] malma: mála U

kennings

kveðju malma,
‘the greeting of metal weapons, ’
   = BATTLE

the greeting of metal weapons, → BATTLE

notes

[7] fyr kveðju malma ‘before the greeting of metal weapons [BATTLE]’: If the prep. fyr has this straightforward temporal application, it is suited to the scene, the prelude to the battle. It could also perhaps be translated as ‘on account of’, ‘instead of’ or ‘in return for’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 204).

Close

kveðju ‘the greeting’

1. kveðja (noun f.; °-u; -ur): greeting

[7] kveðju: kveðjur 61, U

kennings

kveðju malma,
‘the greeting of metal weapons, ’
   = BATTLE

the greeting of metal weapons, → BATTLE

notes

[7] fyr kveðju malma ‘before the greeting of metal weapons [BATTLE]’: If the prep. fyr has this straightforward temporal application, it is suited to the scene, the prelude to the battle. It could also perhaps be translated as ‘on account of’, ‘instead of’ or ‘in return for’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 204).

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mær ‘a maiden’

mær (noun f.; °meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar): maiden

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6).

Close

hei ‘’

Close

heið ‘re’

2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky < heiðþegi (noun m.)2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky

[8] heiðþegum: ‘heiþengvm’ U;    heið‑: ‘hanum’ R686ˣ, heim‑ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, ‘hæít’ 325VII

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6). — [8] heiðþegum ‘retainers’: The correct reading is difficult to establish (see Jesch 2001a, 235-7 for full discussion). The word heið is explained by the comment in SnE that heiðfé heitir máli ok gjǫf er hǫfðingjar gefaheið-money is the name of the wages and gift that chieftains give’ (SnE 1998, I, 81; cf. LP: 2. heið f.). The alternative reading heimdregum ‘stay-at-homes’ can be explained as stigmatising those who did not support the king. But possibly some other word has been garbled in all witnesses. Jesch (loc. cit.) proposes heimþegum ‘persons given a home’, a comitatus term that occurs in Danish runic inscriptions; it is not attested in the skaldic corpus or OWN but given Sigvatr’s lexical eclecticism elsewhere he might well have used such a word.

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heið ‘re’

2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky < heiðþegi (noun m.)2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky2. heið (noun n.; °; -): clear sky

[8] heiðþegum: ‘heiþengvm’ U;    heið‑: ‘hanum’ R686ˣ, heim‑ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, ‘hæít’ 325VII

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6). — [8] heiðþegum ‘retainers’: The correct reading is difficult to establish (see Jesch 2001a, 235-7 for full discussion). The word heið is explained by the comment in SnE that heiðfé heitir máli ok gjǫf er hǫfðingjar gefaheið-money is the name of the wages and gift that chieftains give’ (SnE 1998, I, 81; cf. LP: 2. heið f.). The alternative reading heimdregum ‘stay-at-homes’ can be explained as stigmatising those who did not support the king. But possibly some other word has been garbled in all witnesses. Jesch (loc. cit.) proposes heimþegum ‘persons given a home’, a comitatus term that occurs in Danish runic inscriptions; it is not attested in the skaldic corpus or OWN but given Sigvatr’s lexical eclecticism elsewhere he might well have used such a word.

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þægjum ‘’

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þegnat ‘’

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sæfum ‘’

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þegum ‘’

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dregum ‘’

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þengum ‘’

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þegum ‘tainers’

-þegi (noun m.): [heir, tainers] < heiðþegi (noun m.)

[8] heiðþegum: ‘heiþengvm’ U;    ‑þegum: ‑dregum R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 75a, ‘‑þægvm’ 972ˣ, 68, 325VII, ‑drǫgum 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, ‘‑sæfum’ 61, ‘‑þe᷎giom’ Holm4, ‘‑þægnat’ 325V

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6). — [8] heiðþegum ‘retainers’: The correct reading is difficult to establish (see Jesch 2001a, 235-7 for full discussion). The word heið is explained by the comment in SnE that heiðfé heitir máli ok gjǫf er hǫfðingjar gefaheið-money is the name of the wages and gift that chieftains give’ (SnE 1998, I, 81; cf. LP: 2. heið f.). The alternative reading heimdregum ‘stay-at-homes’ can be explained as stigmatising those who did not support the king. But possibly some other word has been garbled in all witnesses. Jesch (loc. cit.) proposes heimþegum ‘persons given a home’, a comitatus term that occurs in Danish runic inscriptions; it is not attested in the skaldic corpus or OWN but given Sigvatr’s lexical eclecticism elsewhere he might well have used such a word.

Close

þegum ‘tainers’

-þegi (noun m.): [heir, tainers] < heiðþegi (noun m.)

[8] heiðþegum: ‘heiþengvm’ U;    ‑þegum: ‑dregum R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 75a, ‘‑þægvm’ 972ˣ, 68, 325VII, ‑drǫgum 325VI, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, ‘‑sæfum’ 61, ‘‑þe᷎giom’ Holm4, ‘‑þægnat’ 325V

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6). — [8] heiðþegum ‘retainers’: The correct reading is difficult to establish (see Jesch 2001a, 235-7 for full discussion). The word heið is explained by the comment in SnE that heiðfé heitir máli ok gjǫf er hǫfðingjar gefaheið-money is the name of the wages and gift that chieftains give’ (SnE 1998, I, 81; cf. LP: 2. heið f.). The alternative reading heimdregum ‘stay-at-homes’ can be explained as stigmatising those who did not support the king. But possibly some other word has been garbled in all witnesses. Jesch (loc. cit.) proposes heimþegum ‘persons given a home’, a comitatus term that occurs in Danish runic inscriptions; it is not attested in the skaldic corpus or OWN but given Sigvatr’s lexical eclecticism elsewhere he might well have used such a word.

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bæri ‘were bringing’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[8] bæri: beri R686ˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 68, Tˣ

notes

[5, 6, 7, 8] sem mær bæri þessum heiðþegum þengils mjǫð ‘as if a maiden were bringing these retainers of the prince mead’: Contrasting the perils of battle with the comforts of the hall (here the woman welcoming victorious warriors) is a favourite skaldic theme. The metaphorical base-words of the battle-kennings in the helmingr may allude to the maiden’s greeting (kveðju, l. 7) to the warrior, who arrives on horseback (, l. 6).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

ÓH-Hkr introduces st. 7 after st. 5, with an account of the boarding. In Fsk, st. 7 is cited after st. 1. In SnE, the second helmingr is cited in a discussion of terms for members of a court or retinue.

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This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
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Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.