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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 12I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 12’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 418.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
111213

vætr ‘nothing’

vætr (noun n.): not a trace, nothing

[1] vætr: vætti 54, Bb, veðr Flat

Close

varði ‘defended’

3. verja (verb): defend

Close

víð ‘broad’

víðr (adj.): far

Close

Breta ‘of Britons’

Breti (noun m.; °; -ar): Briton

kennings

Stríðir Breta,
‘The harmer of Britons, ’
   = RULER = Óláfr

The harmer of Britons, → RULER = Óláfr
Close

stryðrir ‘’

Close

stríðir ‘The harmer’

stríðir (noun m.): opponent, fighter

[2] stríðir: corrected from stýrir 54, ‘stryðrer’ Flat

kennings

Stríðir Breta,
‘The harmer of Britons, ’
   = RULER = Óláfr

The harmer of Britons, → RULER = Óláfr
Close

bráðan ‘the headlong’

bráðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): quick(ly)

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

brekk ‘’

Close

bekk ‘of the bench’

1. bekkr (noun m.; °-jar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): bench < bekkdómr (noun m.)

[4] bekk‑: ‘brekk’ Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

bekk ‘of the bench’

1. bekkr (noun m.; °-jar/-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): bench < bekkdómr (noun m.)

[4] bekk‑: ‘brekk’ Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

dóm ‘judgement’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix) < bekkdómr (noun m.)

[4] ‑dóm: dóms Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: fyr konungs Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr. — [4] Heðins ‘of Heðinn <legendary hero>’: See Note to st. 24/3, 4.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: fyr konungs Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr. — [4] Heðins ‘of Heðinn <legendary hero>’: See Note to st. 24/3, 4.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: fyr konungs Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr. — [4] Heðins ‘of Heðinn <legendary hero>’: See Note to st. 24/3, 4.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: fyr konungs Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr. — [4] Heðins ‘of Heðinn <legendary hero>’: See Note to st. 24/3, 4.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: fyr konungs Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr. — [4] Heðins ‘of Heðinn <legendary hero>’: See Note to st. 24/3, 4.

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: fyr konungs Flat

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr. — [4] Heðins ‘of Heðinn <legendary hero>’: See Note to st. 24/3, 4.

Close

rekka ‘of the champions’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

rekka ‘of the champions’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

rekka ‘of the champions’

rekkr (noun m.; °; -ar): man, champion

kennings

bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm.
‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’
   = BATTLE

the champions of Heðinn. → Hjaðningar
the bench of HJAÐNINGAR → SHIELD
the headlong judgement of the SHIELD → BATTLE

notes

[3-4] bráðan Heðins rekka bekkdóm ‘the headlong judgement of the bench of the champions of Heðinn <legendary hero> [(lit. ‘bench-judgement of the champions of Heðinn’) = Hjaðningar > SHIELD > BATTLE]’: (a) Bekkr m. ‘bench’ is here taken as the base-word of a shield-kenning cf. brík ‘slab’, flet ‘platform’, setr ‘seat’ (Meissner 167, 169). Heðins rekka ‘the champions of Heðinn [= Hjaðningar]’ is then a minor elaboration of the pattern in which legendary heroes provide the determinant of shield-kennings. (b) Alternatively, bekkdómr ‘bench-judgement’ could be taken as a single kenning element, the base-word of a battle-kenning; so LP: bekkdómr, suggesting it is a final judgement, such as would be delivered by judges from their benches. But the cpd is otherwise unattested, and there is no evidence for the association of judges with bekkir. (c) Flat’s reading ‘brekk’ could yield brekdómr ‘deceit’, also unattested but cf. breksekð ‘deceptive sentence of outlawry’ (ONP: breksekð), and svikdómr ‘treachery’, Mark Eirdr 13/3II. Firðisk vætr bráðan brekdóm rekka Heðins ‘did not avoid the sudden deceit of the champions of Heðinn [WARRIORS]’ could then refer to Sigvaldi’s luring of Óláfr into battle, and would contrast with the sǫnn sǫk ‘true cause’ attributed to Óláfr in the second helmingr.

Close

jalmr ‘screech’

jalmr (noun m.): screech, noise < sverðjalmr (noun m.)

[6] ‑jalmr: hjálmr 54, Bb, gust Flat

kennings

sverðjalmr
‘sword-screech ’
   = BATTLE

sword-screech → BATTLE
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háinn ‘’

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óx ‘grew’

vaxa (verb): grow, increase

[6] óx þar: corrected from ‘of saul’ 54, ‘háinn’ Flat

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

[6] óx þar: corrected from ‘of saul’ 54, ‘háinn’ Flat

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verða ‘to become’

1. verða (verb): become, be

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skilit ‘clearly’

1. skilja (verb): separate, understand

notes

[7] ek frá skilit ‘I was informed clearly’: Cf. st. 25/5. In both lines the initial disyllable skilit undergoes resolution, so the pers. pron. cannot be cliticised (see Gade 1995a, 149-50 on this metrical pattern). Konráð Gíslason and Eiríkur Jónsson (Nj 1875-8, II, 916-19), arguing for syllabic ek in both cases, see the slow rhythm of em ek ‘I am’ in st. 25/5 as expressive of the skald’s anguish.

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frá ‘was informed’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

notes

[7] ek frá skilit ‘I was informed clearly’: Cf. st. 25/5. In both lines the initial disyllable skilit undergoes resolution, so the pers. pron. cannot be cliticised (see Gade 1995a, 149-50 on this metrical pattern). Konráð Gíslason and Eiríkur Jónsson (Nj 1875-8, II, 916-19), arguing for syllabic ek in both cases, see the slow rhythm of em ek ‘I am’ in st. 25/5 as expressive of the skald’s anguish.

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ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[7] ek frá skilit ‘I was informed clearly’: Cf. st. 25/5. In both lines the initial disyllable skilit undergoes resolution, so the pers. pron. cannot be cliticised (see Gade 1995a, 149-50 on this metrical pattern). Konráð Gíslason and Eiríkur Jónsson (Nj 1875-8, II, 916-19), arguing for syllabic ek in both cases, see the slow rhythm of em ek ‘I am’ in st. 25/5 as expressive of the skald’s anguish.

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fyr ‘before’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

notes

[7] fyr skylja ‘before the king’: I.e. ‘in the presence of the king’, cf. st. 24/8 fyr Ôleifi ‘before Óláfr’. Kock (Skald and NN §475) takes the phrase instead with the main clause, though he does not specify in what sense.

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skylja ‘the king’

skyli (noun m.): lord

notes

[7] fyr skylja ‘before the king’: I.e. ‘in the presence of the king’, cf. st. 24/8 fyr Ôleifi ‘before Óláfr’. Kock (Skald and NN §475) takes the phrase instead with the main clause, though he does not specify in what sense.

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skóð ‘harmers [weapons]’

2. skóð (noun n.): harmer, scathe

[8] skóð: slóð Flat

notes

[8] skóð ‘harmers [weapons]’: This could be taken as a half-kenning (Meissner 77, and cf. LP: skóð for full kennings employing it) or as a heiti for a dangerous weapon (cf. verb skaða ‘to harm, damage’).

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mǫrg ‘many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[8] mǫrg: so 54, Flat, mær 61, morð Bb

notes

[8] mǫrg ‘many’: The agreement of 54 and Flat speaks for this reading, though mær ‘splendid’ (so 61) is also possible.

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roðin ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[8] roðin: roðit Bb

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blóði ‘with blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Óláfr courts danger by showing himself to his enemies, as his valour commands him, despite their overwhelming numbers.

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