skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Lv 8I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Lausavísur 8’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 226.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonLausavísur
789

Bôrum ‘We bore’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

notes

[1] bôrum, Ullr ‘we bore, Ullr <god>’: The diagnosis of collisio applies to the final [m] in bôrum, which is preceded and followed by a vowel. Such placement would certainly be a blemish in Latin verse, but not in Old Norse.

Close

Ullr ‘Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

kennings

Ullr ímunlauks.
‘Ullr of the battle-leek. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-leek. → SWORD
Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1] bôrum, Ullr ‘we bore, Ullr <god>’: The diagnosis of collisio applies to the final [m] in bôrum, which is preceded and followed by a vowel. Such placement would certainly be a blemish in Latin verse, but not in Old Norse. — [1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).

Close

Ullr ‘Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

kennings

Ullr ímunlauks.
‘Ullr of the battle-leek. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-leek. → SWORD
Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1] bôrum, Ullr ‘we bore, Ullr <god>’: The diagnosis of collisio applies to the final [m] in bôrum, which is preceded and followed by a vowel. Such placement would certainly be a blemish in Latin verse, but not in Old Norse. — [1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).

Close

of ‘during’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[1] of (‘vm’): á U(31r)

notes

[1, 4] of alla ævi Hôkunar ‘during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime’: Cf. the closely similar phrasing in Lv 9/3, 4. 

Close

alla ‘the whole’

allr (adj.): all

[1] alla: allan R, C

notes

[1, 4] of alla ævi Hôkunar ‘during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime’: Cf. the closely similar phrasing in Lv 9/3, 4. 

Close

imum ‘’

Close

ímun ‘of the battle’

ímun (noun f.): battle < ímunlaukr (noun m.)ímun (noun f.): battleímun (noun f.): battle < ímun (noun f.): battle

[2] ímun‑: ‘imum’ Bb

kennings

Ullr ímunlauks.
‘Ullr of the battle-leek. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-leek. → SWORD
Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).

Close

ímun ‘of the battle’

ímun (noun f.): battle < ímunlaukr (noun m.)ímun (noun f.): battleímun (noun f.): battle < ímun (noun f.): battle

[2] ímun‑: ‘imum’ Bb

kennings

Ullr ímunlauks.
‘Ullr of the battle-leek. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-leek. → SWORD
Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).

Close

letrs ‘’

Close

lauks ‘leek’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast < ímunlaukr (noun m.)laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast

[2] ‑lauks: ‘letvrs’ R, ‘l[…]ks’ U(31r), ‑leiks C

kennings

Ullr ímunlauks.
‘Ullr of the battle-leek. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-leek. → SWORD
Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).

Close

lauks ‘leek’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast < ímunlaukr (noun m.)laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast

[2] ‑lauks: ‘letvrs’ R, ‘l[…]ks’ U(31r), ‑leiks C

kennings

Ullr ímunlauks.
‘Ullr of the battle-leek. ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-leek. → SWORD
Ullr of the SWORD → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] Ullr ímunlauks ‘Ullr <god> of the battle-leek [SWORD > WARRIOR]’: The addressee of this vocative remains unidentified (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26) but could conceivably be one of the ‘friends’ (vinum, Lv 13/8) who assist Eyvindr during this period of hardship. The repeated mention of the god Ullr here and in Lv 9/3 seems deliberate, but its significance is difficult to pin down. Although Ullr must have been a major deity, his story is poorly documented in SnE and other medieval texts. Attestations of his name in the toponymic material are confined to Mälaren in Sweden and Viken in Norway (Brink 2007a, 116). It is therefore possible that Eyvindr alludes to him as a favourite god of the people of Viken who were opposed to Haraldr gráfeldr (see Note to Lv 7/2).

Close

á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á: so all others, ok Kˣ

Close

hauka ‘of hawks’

1. haukr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): hawk

[2] hauka: hauga FskBˣ

kennings

fjǫllum hauka
‘the mountains of hawks ’
   = HANDS

the mountains of hawks → HANDS
Close

fjǫllum ‘the mountains’

1. fjall (noun n.): mountain

[3] fjǫllum: ‘fioll[…]’ U(31r)

kennings

fjǫllum hauka
‘the mountains of hawks ’
   = HANDS

the mountains of hawks → HANDS
Close

Fýris ‘of Fýris’

fýri (noun n.): fir-tree < Fýrisvellir (noun m.)fýri (noun n.): fir-tree < Fýrisvǫllr (noun m.)

kennings

fræ Fýrisvalla
‘the seed of Fýrisvellir ’
   = GOLD

the seed of Fýrisvellir → GOLD

notes

[3-4] fræ Fýrisvalla ‘the seed of Fýrisvellir [GOLD]’: The legendary Hrólfr kraki, king of Denmark, is said to have scattered gold rings and treasure on the plains of Fýrisvellir in order to distract the Swedish king Aðils (cf. Þjóð Yt 16/2) and his army, and delay their pursuit of him (SnE 1998, I, 59; Yng, ÍF 26, 57; Hrólfs saga kraka, Hrólf 1960, 105). For this reason he is spoken of as ‘sowing gold’. See Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this legend. Concomitantly, the base-word ‘seed’ may hint at an underlying theme of the fertility of the land and at the traditional connection of fertility with good rule. The theme of the land is maintained by the choice of the (contrasting) kenning base-words in l. 3: valla, from vellir ‘plains’, and fjǫllum, from fjǫll ‘mountains’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

Close

valla ‘vellir’

vǫllr (noun m.; °vallar, dat. velli; vellir acc. vǫllu/velli): plain, field < Fýrisvellir (noun m.)

[3] ‑valla: vallar F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, U(43v)

kennings

fræ Fýrisvalla
‘the seed of Fýrisvellir ’
   = GOLD

the seed of Fýrisvellir → GOLD

notes

[3-4] fræ Fýrisvalla ‘the seed of Fýrisvellir [GOLD]’: The legendary Hrólfr kraki, king of Denmark, is said to have scattered gold rings and treasure on the plains of Fýrisvellir in order to distract the Swedish king Aðils (cf. Þjóð Yt 16/2) and his army, and delay their pursuit of him (SnE 1998, I, 59; Yng, ÍF 26, 57; Hrólfs saga kraka, Hrólf 1960, 105). For this reason he is spoken of as ‘sowing gold’. See Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this legend. Concomitantly, the base-word ‘seed’ may hint at an underlying theme of the fertility of the land and at the traditional connection of fertility with good rule. The theme of the land is maintained by the choice of the (contrasting) kenning base-words in l. 3: valla, from vellir ‘plains’, and fjǫllum, from fjǫll ‘mountains’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

Close

fræ ‘the seed’

fræ (noun n.): seed (= frjó)

kennings

fræ Fýrisvalla
‘the seed of Fýrisvellir ’
   = GOLD

the seed of Fýrisvellir → GOLD

notes

[3-4] fræ Fýrisvalla ‘the seed of Fýrisvellir [GOLD]’: The legendary Hrólfr kraki, king of Denmark, is said to have scattered gold rings and treasure on the plains of Fýrisvellir in order to distract the Swedish king Aðils (cf. Þjóð Yt 16/2) and his army, and delay their pursuit of him (SnE 1998, I, 59; Yng, ÍF 26, 57; Hrólfs saga kraka, Hrólf 1960, 105). For this reason he is spoken of as ‘sowing gold’. See Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this legend. Concomitantly, the base-word ‘seed’ may hint at an underlying theme of the fertility of the land and at the traditional connection of fertility with good rule. The theme of the land is maintained by the choice of the (contrasting) kenning base-words in l. 3: valla, from vellir ‘plains’, and fjǫllum, from fjǫll ‘mountains’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV).

Close

‘of Há’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high < Hákon (noun m.): Hákon

notes

[1, 4] of alla ævi Hôkunar ‘during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime’: Cf. the closely similar phrasing in Lv 9/3, 4. 

Close

kunar ‘kon’s’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin < Hákon (noun m.): Hákon

notes

[1, 4] of alla ævi Hôkunar ‘during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime’: Cf. the closely similar phrasing in Lv 9/3, 4. 

Close

ævi ‘lifetime’

ævi (noun f.; °-/-ar): life

notes

[1, 4] of alla ævi Hôkunar ‘during the whole of Hákon’s lifetime’: Cf. the closely similar phrasing in Lv 9/3, 4. 

Close

hófir ‘’

Close

hefr ‘has’

hafa (verb): have

[5] hefr: ‘hofir’ Bb

Close

folkstríðir ‘the afflicter of the people’

folkstríðir (noun m.): afflicter of people

[5] folkstríðir: full hríð Bb

kennings

folkstríðir
‘the afflicter of the people ’
   = Haraldr

the afflicter of the people → Haraldr

notes

[5] folkstríðir ‘the afflicter of the people [= Haraldr]’: Haraldr gráfeldr, who, in reality, may have enjoyed greater popular support than this invective would suggest (cf. Bagge 2004, 194).

Close

Fróða ‘of Fróði’

Fróði (noun m.): Fróði

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

Fróða ‘of Fróði’

Fróði (noun m.): Fróði

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

glýara ‘’

Close

gyljaðra ‘’

Close

‘of the little’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few < fáglýjaðr (adj.)3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few

[6] fá‑: fjǫl J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, FskAˣ

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

‘of the little’

3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few < fáglýjaðr (adj.)3. fár (adj.; °compar. fǽrri/fárri(Mág² 11ˆ), superl. fǽstr): few

[6] fá‑: fjǫl J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, FskAˣ

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

glýjaðra ‘satisfied’

glýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.): satisfied, cheerful; delighter < fáglýjaðr (adj.)glýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.): satisfied, cheerful; delighter < fjǫlglýjaðr (adj.)

[6] ‑glýjaðra: ‘gyliadra’ Bb, ‘glyara’ FskBˣ

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

glýjaðra ‘satisfied’

glýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.): satisfied, cheerful; delighter < fáglýjaðr (adj.)glýjaðr (adj./verb p.p.): satisfied, cheerful; delighter < fjǫlglýjaðr (adj.)

[6] ‑glýjaðra: ‘gyliadra’ Bb, ‘glyara’ FskBˣ

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

meld ‘’

Close

þýja ‘bondswomen’

þý (noun f.; °-jar/-ar, acc. -ju; -jar): bondswoman

[6] þýja: þylja Bb

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

þýja ‘bondswomen’

þý (noun f.; °-jar/-ar, acc. -ju; -jar): bondswoman

[6] þýja: þylja Bb

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

meldr ‘the flour’

meldr (noun m.): flour

[7] meldr: meld FskBˣ, moldar FskAˣ

kennings

meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða
‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði ’
   = GOLD

the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði → Fenja and Menja
the flour of FENJA AND MENJA → GOLD

notes

[5-7] meldr fáglýjaðra þýja Fróða ‘the flour of the little-satisfied bondswomen of Fróði <legendary king> [= Fenja and Menja > GOLD]’: The reference is to a legend attested in Grott, which is cited following a prose version of the story in Skm (SnE 1998, I, 52-7; and see Meissner 228 for further kennings alluding to this). Two slave-women, Fenja and Menja, are forced to grind gold for Fróði, the king of Denmark celebrated for his long reign of peace and plenty, but eventually sabotage his scheme (in SnE by grinding salt instead). The allusion may be intended as a hint to Haraldr gráfeldr that his oppressive rule could lead to rebellion.

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

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móður ‘of the mother’

móðir (noun f.): mother

kennings

móður dolgs mellu.
‘of the mother of the enemy of the giantess.’
   = Jǫrð

the enemy of the giantess. → Þórr
the mother of ÞÓRR → Jǫrð

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

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holdi ‘the flesh’

hold (noun n.; °-s; -): flesh

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

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mellu ‘of the giantess’

2. mella (noun f.): giantess

[8] mellu: moldu Bb

kennings

móður dolgs mellu.
‘of the mother of the enemy of the giantess.’
   = Jǫrð

the enemy of the giantess. → Þórr
the mother of ÞÓRR → Jǫrð

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

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mellu ‘of the giantess’

2. mella (noun f.): giantess

[8] mellu: moldu Bb

kennings

móður dolgs mellu.
‘of the mother of the enemy of the giantess.’
   = Jǫrð

the enemy of the giantess. → Þórr
the mother of ÞÓRR → Jǫrð

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

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dolgs ‘of the enemy’

dolgr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): enemy, battle

kennings

móður dolgs mellu.
‘of the mother of the enemy of the giantess.’
   = Jǫrð

the enemy of the giantess. → Þórr
the mother of ÞÓRR → Jǫrð

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

Close

dolgs ‘of the enemy’

dolgr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): enemy, battle

kennings

móður dolgs mellu.
‘of the mother of the enemy of the giantess.’
   = Jǫrð

the enemy of the giantess. → Þórr
the mother of ÞÓRR → Jǫrð

notes

[7-8] í holdi móður dolgs mellu ‘in the flesh of the mother of the enemy of the giantess [= Þórr > = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)]’: The mother of Þórr, who waged war on giants and maimed giantesses, was identified as Jǫrð, which as a common noun means ‘earth’. To hide treasure in her flesh was therefore to hide it in the ground. Cf. the closely parallel kenning structure in Lv 9/6, 8. It would perhaps be possible to take holdi ‘flesh’ here and líki ‘body’ in Lv 9/8 as further kenning elements producing kennings for ‘soil’, though that is not a standard referent.

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folginn ‘hidden’

2. fela (verb): hide

[8] folginn: folgit 61, Bb

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Fsk places Lv 8 and 9 after Lv 12, with the comment that the sons of Eiríkr have become grasping and pay no heed to the laws of the land; they bury their treasure in the ground like peasants and fail to pay their entourage. The explanation in Hkr is similar. In SnE, the first helmingr is used to exemplify the ‘seed of Hrólfr kraki’ pattern of gold-kenning (see Note to ll. 3-4). In TGT ll. 1-2 are cited by Óláfr Þórðarson to illustrate his Latin source’s account of a poetic blemish (vitium) termed collisio, where the consonant [m] stands between two vowels (see Note to l. 1).

The ideology underlying the kennings in this lausavísa is discussed in detail by Frank (1978, 57-60). Lv 8 and 9 are remarkable for their recurrent hendingar using the sounds [ll] or [l], along with other close imitative effects, both phonological and lexical.

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