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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr Óldr 2I

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Óláfsdrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 393.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonÓláfsdrápa
1x23

hersa ‘of hersar

hersir (noun m.; °-is; -ar): cheiftan

[1] hersa: Hǫrða FskBˣ, FskAˣ, 310

kennings

Hjǫrdjarfr dróttinn hersa
‘The sword-bold lord of hersar
   = RULER

The sword-bold lord of hersar → RULER

notes

[1] dróttinn hersa ‘lord of hersar [RULER]’: I.e. of noblemen, district chieftains. The reading of Fsk and 310, dróttinn Hǫrða ‘lord of the Hǫrðar’, is equally viable.

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dróttinn ‘lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

kennings

Hjǫrdjarfr dróttinn hersa
‘The sword-bold lord of hersar
   = RULER

The sword-bold lord of hersar → RULER

notes

[1] dróttinn hersa ‘lord of hersar [RULER]’: I.e. of noblemen, district chieftains. The reading of Fsk and 310, dróttinn Hǫrða ‘lord of the Hǫrðar’, is equally viable.

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hjǫr ‘The sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrdjarfr (adj.)hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

Hjǫrdjarfr dróttinn hersa
‘The sword-bold lord of hersar
   = RULER

The sword-bold lord of hersar → RULER
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darfr ‘’

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djarfr ‘bold’

djarfr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bold < hjǫrdjarfr (adj.)

[2] ‑djarfr: ‘darfr’ J1ˣ

kennings

Hjǫrdjarfr dróttinn hersa
‘The sword-bold lord of hersar
   = RULER

The sword-bold lord of hersar → RULER
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Gota ‘of the Gotar’

Goti (noun m.; °-a; -ar/-nar): person (or horse) from Gotland

notes

[2] Gota ‘of the Gotar’: The people of the large island of Gotland, south-east Sweden.

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fjǫrvi ‘to the life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

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goll ‘the gold’

gull (noun n.): gold < gullskerðir (noun m.)gull (noun n.): gold < gullskerðir (noun m.)gull (noun n.): gold

kennings

gollskerði
‘the gold-diminisher ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the gold-diminisher → GENEROUS MAN
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skeyði ‘’

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skerði ‘diminisher’

skerðir (noun m.): diminisher < gullskerðir (noun m.)

[3] ‑skerði: ‑skerðir J1ˣ, ‘sker[…]’ 62, ‘skeyde’ Flat

kennings

gollskerði
‘the gold-diminisher ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

the gold-diminisher → GENEROUS MAN
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frák ‘I have learned’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

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garðꝍey ‘’

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geyrðu ‘’

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gerðu ‘made’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[3] gerðu: ‘geyrðo’ F, ‘g[…]u’ 62, ‘garðꝍy’ FskBˣ

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geir ‘spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirþeyr (noun m.)

kennings

geirþey
‘spear-breeze ’
   = BATTLE

spear-breeze → BATTLE
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þey ‘breeze’

þeyr (noun m.; °; -jar/-ir): breeze, thawing wind < geirþeyr (noun m.)

kennings

geirþey
‘spear-breeze ’
   = BATTLE

spear-breeze → BATTLE
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Skán ‘Skåne’

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Bǫð ‘of the battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðserkr (noun m.)

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

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Bǫð ‘of the battle’

bǫð (noun f.; °-s; -): battle < bǫðserkr (noun m.)

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

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serkjar ‘shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt < bǫðserkr (noun m.)

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

Close

serkjar ‘shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt < bǫðserkr (noun m.)

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

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hjó ‘cut down’

hǫggva (verb): to strike, put to death, cut, hew

[5] hjó: lét 62, Flat

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birki ‘birches’

birki (noun n.): birch-

[5] birki: ‘birk[…]’ 39

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

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bǫrk ‘’

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bark ‘the bark’

bǫrkr (noun m.; °dat. berki/bǫrk, acc. bark(Kjaln 9¹³n.); acc. bǫrku): [bark] < barklauss (adj.): °without barkbǫrkr (noun m.; °dat. berki/bǫrk, acc. bark(Kjaln 9¹³n.); acc. bǫrku): [bark] < barkrjóðr (noun m.)

[6] bark‑: bǫrk‑ Bb

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

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laust ‘less’

lauss (adj.; °compar. lausari): loose, free, without < barklauss (adj.): °without barklauss (adj.; °compar. lausari): loose, free, without

[6] ‑laust: ‑rjóðr J1ˣ

kennings

barklaust birki bǫðserkjar
‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-shirt → MAIL-SHIRT
the barkless birches of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[5, 6] barklaust birki bǫðserkjar ‘the barkless birches of the battle-shirt [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’: Birki n. is a collective noun, hence the sg. refers in this kenning to several warriors. The epithet barklaust ‘barkless’ helps to clarify the referent: not trees but men, but it may also imply that the victorious Óláfr strips the enemy of their armour like a tree of its bark (so ÍF 26; ÍF 29; Hkr 1991). 

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[6] í: til Flat

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Dan ‘Den’

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mǫrku ‘mark’

mark (noun n.; °-s; *-): sign < Danmǫrk (noun f.): [Denmark]

[6] ‑mǫrku: ‑markar Flat

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hleypi ‘The impelling’

hleypa (verb): impell, make run < hleypimeiðr (noun m.)hleypa (verb): impell, make run

kennings

Hleypimeiðr hlunnviggja
‘The impelling tree of the roller-steeds ’
   = SEAFARER

the roller-steeds → SHIPS
The impelling tree of SHIPS → SEAFARER
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meyðrs ‘’

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meiðr ‘tree’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree < hleypimeiðr (noun m.)

[7] ‑meiðr: ‘mꝍyðrs’ FskAˣ

kennings

Hleypimeiðr hlunnviggja
‘The impelling tree of the roller-steeds ’
   = SEAFARER

the roller-steeds → SHIPS
The impelling tree of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

Heiða ‘of Hedeby’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath < Heiðabýr (noun m.): Hedeby3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

notes

[7, 8] Heiðabý ‘Hedeby’: A major Viking trading centre in the south of Jutland. This is an early example of the skalds’ practice of fitting place names into the dróttkvætt lines using tmesis; cf. Þfagr Sveinn 1/3, 4II for a similar tmesis on this p. n., and for another example see Þloft Tøgdr 1/5, 6 and Note; also Kuhn (1983, 111-12).

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hlunn ‘of the roller’

hlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller < hlunnvigg (noun n.): roller-steedhlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller < 1. hlunnveggr (noun m.): wall

kennings

Hleypimeiðr hlunnviggja
‘The impelling tree of the roller-steeds ’
   = SEAFARER

the roller-steeds → SHIPS
The impelling tree of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

hlunn ‘of the roller’

hlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller < hlunnvigg (noun n.): roller-steedhlunnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): roller < 1. hlunnveggr (noun m.): wall

kennings

Hleypimeiðr hlunnviggja
‘The impelling tree of the roller-steeds ’
   = SEAFARER

the roller-steeds → SHIPS
The impelling tree of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

viggja ‘steeds’

vigg (noun n.): steed < hlunnvigg (noun n.): roller-steed

[8] ‑viggja: viggja fyr J1ˣ, ‑veggja 54, Bb

kennings

Hleypimeiðr hlunnviggja
‘The impelling tree of the roller-steeds ’
   = SEAFARER

the roller-steeds → SHIPS
The impelling tree of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

viggja ‘steeds’

vigg (noun n.): steed < hlunnvigg (noun n.): roller-steed

[8] ‑viggja: viggja fyr J1ˣ, ‑veggja 54, Bb

kennings

Hleypimeiðr hlunnviggja
‘The impelling tree of the roller-steeds ’
   = SEAFARER

the roller-steeds → SHIPS
The impelling tree of SHIPS → SEAFARER
Close

‘’

býr (noun m.; °býjar/bjár/bjór/bjárs, dat. -; gen. býa/bjá, dat. bjóm/bjám, acc. býi/býa/bjá): dwelling, down < Heiðabýr (noun m.): Hedeby

[8] bý: bú 54

notes

[7, 8] Heiðabý ‘Hedeby’: A major Viking trading centre in the south of Jutland. This is an early example of the skalds’ practice of fitting place names into the dróttkvætt lines using tmesis; cf. Þfagr Sveinn 1/3, 4II for a similar tmesis on this p. n., and for another example see Þloft Tøgdr 1/5, 6 and Note; also Kuhn (1983, 111-12).

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See Introduction.

The pairing of helmingar follows Fsk and 310 (see Introduction); in Hkr and ÓT, st. 1/5-8 and st. 2/1-4 form a stanza, while st. 2/5-8 stands as an isolated helmingr.  — [5-8]: The title of the source poem is given as ÓláfsdrápaDrápa about Óláfr’ in Hkr and ÓT; cf. Note to st. 4/1-4.

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