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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Tindr Hákdr 6I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Tindr Hallkelsson, Hákonardrápa 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 348.

Tindr HallkelssonHákonardrápa
567

Gjǫrðusk ‘came’

1. gera (verb): do, make

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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

kennings

glaumr borða Gǫndlar
‘the revelry of the planks of Gǫndul ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul → SHIELDS
the revelry of SHIELDS → BATTLE
Close

Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

2. Gǫndul (noun f.): Gǫndul

kennings

glaumr borða Gǫndlar
‘the revelry of the planks of Gǫndul ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul → SHIELDS
the revelry of SHIELDS → BATTLE
Close

borða ‘of the planks’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

glaumr borða Gǫndlar
‘the revelry of the planks of Gǫndul ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul → SHIELDS
the revelry of SHIELDS → BATTLE
Close

borða ‘of the planks’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

kennings

glaumr borða Gǫndlar
‘the revelry of the planks of Gǫndul ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul → SHIELDS
the revelry of SHIELDS → BATTLE
Close

glaumr ‘the revelry’

glaumr (noun m.): noise

kennings

glaumr borða Gǫndlar
‘the revelry of the planks of Gǫndul ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul → SHIELDS
the revelry of SHIELDS → BATTLE
Close

þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

Close

at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at *: at er 510

Close

* ‘’

(non-lexical)

[2] at *: at er 510

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Naumu ‘Nauma’

nauma (noun f.): Nauma

notes

[2] Naumu ‘Nauma’: This heiti is most frequently attested as the name of a giantess or possibly a goddess (see Þjóð Yt 22/6, Ótt Lv 3/8 and Notes), and it is taken thus in most previous eds, but this leads to problems with the kennings, as noted above. An alternative is to interpret Nauma as a p. n. It is listed among the island-heiti in Þul Eyja 4/1III (though the place is unidentified), is attested in the Norw. p. n. Numedal (ON Naumudalr) and is postulated as a p. n. or river-name in Norw. place names such as Namsen and Namsfjorden (see Sandnes and Stemshaug 1990, 229, 237). A p. n. Nauma does not occur elsewhere in the Jómsvíking tradition, but Tindr’s poem may have preserved information missing from other accounts: cf. the mention of the apparent p. n. Goðmarr in st. 11/4.

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auði ‘to riches’

1. auðr (noun m.; °-s/-ar, dat. -i/-): wealth

notes

[3] grimms auði ‘of the one hostile to riches [Hákon]’: An unusual substantival use of the adj. is assumed here, resulting in a phrase that contains the same notion as many kennings for ‘generous man’: that a man is hostile to rich goods since he gives them away lavishly to his followers.

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grimms ‘the one hostile’

grimmr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): fierce

notes

[3] grimms auði ‘of the one hostile to riches [Hákon]’: An unusual substantival use of the adj. is assumed here, resulting in a phrase that contains the same notion as many kennings for ‘generous man’: that a man is hostile to rich goods since he gives them away lavishly to his followers.

Close

eyðask ‘be laid waste’

2. eyða (verb; °-dd-): destroy

[3] eyðask: eyðisk 510

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ǫll ‘All’

allr (adj.): all

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Dana ‘of the Danes’

danr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ir): Dane

notes

[4] Dana ‘of the Danes’: The mention of Danes here complements the previous mention of the Wends (st. 4/1), making clear that the two groups had formed a joint expedition against Hákon jarl (ÍF 26, cxi).

Close

heggr ‘The bird-cherry’

heggr (noun m.): cherry-tree

[5] heggr: hægur 510

kennings

Heggr hræ*birtinga
‘The bird-cherry of the corpse-trout ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the corpse-trout → SWORDS
The bird-cherry of SWORDS → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hǫggva ‘hit’

hǫggva (verb): to strike, put to death, cut, hew

notes

[5, 8] hǫggva skeggi niðr ‘hit down with their beards’: I.e. to fall dead; cf. HaukrV Ísldr 12/5, 8IV hǫggva bǫrðum í gras ‘strike their beards into the grass’. Skeggi is lit. ‘(with the) beard’ (dat. sg.).

Close

hræ* ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræbirtingr (noun m.): [corpse-trout]

[6] hræ*birtinga: ‘hræber bírtíngum’ 510

kennings

Heggr hræ*birtinga
‘The bird-cherry of the corpse-trout ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the corpse-trout → SWORDS
The bird-cherry of SWORDS → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hræ* ‘of the corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hræbirtingr (noun m.): [corpse-trout]

[6] hræ*birtinga: ‘hræber bírtíngum’ 510

kennings

Heggr hræ*birtinga
‘The bird-cherry of the corpse-trout ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the corpse-trout → SWORDS
The bird-cherry of SWORDS → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hræbir ‘’

Close

senar ‘’

Close

birtinga ‘trout’

birtingr (noun m.; °-s, dat -i/-): [sea-trout] < hræbirtingr (noun m.): [corpse-trout]

[6] hræ*birtinga: ‘hræber bírtíngum’ 510

kennings

Heggr hræ*birtinga
‘The bird-cherry of the corpse-trout ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the corpse-trout → SWORDS
The bird-cherry of SWORDS → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

birtinga ‘trout’

birtingr (noun m.; °-s, dat -i/-): [sea-trout] < hræbirtingr (noun m.): [corpse-trout]

[6] hræ*birtinga: ‘hræber bírtíngum’ 510

kennings

Heggr hræ*birtinga
‘The bird-cherry of the corpse-trout ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the corpse-trout → SWORDS
The bird-cherry of SWORDS → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[6] sævar: ‘senar’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[6] sævar: ‘senar’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[6] sævar: ‘senar’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

sævar ‘of the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[6] sævar: ‘senar’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

veðr ‘of the weather’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðreggjandi (noun m.)

[7] veðr‑: veðs 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

veðr ‘of the weather’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðreggjandi (noun m.)

[7] veðr‑: veðs 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

eggjǫndum ‘the inciters’

eggjandi (noun m.; °; eggjendr): inciter < veðreggjandi (noun m.)eggjandi (noun m.; °; eggjendr): inciter

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

veggrs ‘’

Close

viggja* ‘of the horses’

viggr (noun m.): horse

[7] viggja*: viggjar 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

viggja* ‘of the horses’

viggr (noun m.): horse

[7] viggja*: viggjar 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

viggja* ‘of the horses’

viggr (noun m.): horse

[7] viggja*: viggjar 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

viggja* ‘of the horses’

viggr (noun m.): horse

[7] viggja*: viggjar 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

vegg*s ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

[8] vegg*s: ‘veggurs’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

vegg*s ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

[8] vegg*s: ‘veggurs’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

vegg*s ‘of the wall’

1. veggr (noun m.; °-jar/-s(Páll²A 257³³), dat. -/-i(kun defin.); -ir): wall

[8] vegg*s: ‘veggurs’ 510

kennings

sævar viggja* vegg*s veðreggjǫndum
‘weather-inciters of the wall of the horses of the sea’
   = WARRIORS

the horses of the sea → SHIPS
the wall of SHIPS → SHIELD
the weather of the SHIELD → BATTLE
the inciters of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

niðr ‘down’

3. niðr (adv.): down

[8] niðr: niðs 510

notes

[5, 8] hǫggva skeggi niðr ‘hit down with their beards’: I.e. to fall dead; cf. HaukrV Ísldr 12/5, 8IV hǫggva bǫrðum í gras ‘strike their beards into the grass’. Skeggi is lit. ‘(with the) beard’ (dat. sg.).

Close

of ‘on account’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

notes

[8] of þat ‘on account of that’: I.e. because of the attack on Norway by the Danish king’s fleet (Janus Jónsson 1889, 283).

Close

þat ‘of that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[8] of þat ‘on account of that’: I.e. because of the attack on Norway by the Danish king’s fleet (Janus Jónsson 1889, 283).

Close

skeggi ‘with their beards’

skeggr (noun m.): beard

notes

[5, 8] hǫggva skeggi niðr ‘hit down with their beards’: I.e. to fall dead; cf. HaukrV Ísldr 12/5, 8IV hǫggva bǫrðum í gras ‘strike their beards into the grass’. Skeggi is lit. ‘(with the) beard’ (dat. sg.).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

As for st. 4.

[1-4]: This helmingr seems to indicate that the Danes raided Norway widely, if sporadically, in advance of the battle at Hjǫrungavágr (cf. ÍF 26, 277). Many difficulties are posed by these lines, however. (a) In this edn the key assumptions are that the initial verb is gjǫrðusk (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘came to be’, lit. ‘made themselves’ from gera (so Sveinbjörn Egilsson, SHI 11); that ms. er in l. 2 should be deleted (Kock, NN §433, noting that superfluous words occur frequently in the text of 510); that Naumu (dat. sg.) in l. 2 represents a p. n. Nauma, governed by prep. at; that grimms (gen. sg.) ‘hostile’ in l. 3 is an adj. used substantivally (SHI 11; cf. Sigv Nesv 6/2, 14/8); that ms. ‘eyðiz’ (l. 3) should be emended to eyðask ‘be laid waste’; and that brandi (dat. sg.) in l. 4 means ‘with the sword’. The helmingr has been extensively debated in previous scholarship, with the following as the principal contributions. (b) Sveinbjörn Egilsson wavered between eyðask ‘to be laid waste’ and brandi ‘sword’ on the one hand (SHI 11), and eyðis ‘of the destroyer’ and brandi ‘flame’ on the other (Fms 12; cf. LP (1860): eyðir). (c) Finnur Jónsson (1886b, 338; cf. Skj B) reversed the relationship of the main and subordinate clauses and took ms. ‘giorduzt’ as representing a form of gerða ‘to surround’, combined with brandi in the sense of ‘ship’s prow’, and he emended at in l. 2 to the expletive particle of. This gives Gǫndlar borða naumu glaumr óx, þar es ǫll lǫnd auði grimms Dana eyðis of gerðusk brandi ‘The revelry of the giantess of the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> [SHIELDS > VALKYRIE > BATTLE] intensified, where all the lands of the devastator of the Danes [= Hákon], hostile to gold, were encircled by the prow(s)’. For the idea of encirclement as a protection against an invading adversary, Finnur Jónsson cites ÞKolb Eirdr 2/5-8. Nauma is here taken as a giantess-name. This interpretation, however, entails the problematic assumption that of (by emendation) and gjǫrðusk are to be construed together, although so distant in the text. (d) Kock (NN §433) rejects Finnur’s þar es ‘where’ on the grounds that it would reduce to one syllable, making the line unmetrical. He reverts to gerðusk/gjǫrðusk ‘came to be’ as from gera, brandi as ‘with the sword’ and eyðisk (seemingly construed as subj. from eyðask) as ‘laid waste’ and proposes to interpret Gǫndlar borða glaumr… at naumu as gnyende av sköldetrollet ‘clamour from/of the shield-troll’. Presumably Kock regarded this as equivalent to a kenning ‘clamour of the troll-woman of the shield [AXE > BATTLE]’ but the prepositional phrase at naumu does not conform to normal kenning structure. (e) Reichardt (1928, 204) continues Finnur Jónsson’s analysis of the lexis but normalises the relationship between main and subordinate clauses. — [5-8]: This edn adopts the readings proposed by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by Kock in Skald); several of these also go back to Sveinbjörn Egilsson in Fms 12. Necessary emendations are heggr, the tree-name ‘bird-cherry’, for ‘hægur’ in l. 5; gen. pl. birtinga for dat. pl. birtingum ‘sea-trout’ in l. 6; sævar ‘of the sea’ for ‘senar’ in l. 6; viggja ‘of horses’ for ‘viggjar’ in l. 7; and niðr ‘down’ for ‘niðz’ in l. 8. In l. 6, ‘hræber bírt-’ is evidently a dittography for hræ birt-.

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