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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hókr Eirfl 7I

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2012, ‘Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 482.

Halldórr ókristniEiríksflokkr
678

vítt ‘from afar’

víðr (adj.): far

[1] vítt: vitr 325VIII 2 g, Bb

notes

[1] vítt ‘from afar’: This adv. usually means ‘far and wide, widely’ (see LP: víðr), but the prose implies that Sigvaldi and his troops waited together for the battle to end. Vítt in the sense ‘from afar’ could have been used ironically here.

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at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

notes

[1] at vígi ‘to the fight’: The , F variant at vági ‘to the bay’ is also possible, but it is the minority reading and could have been prompted by the fact that, according to some traditions, Svǫlðr was a bay and not an island (see Note to st. 3/7 above).

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vígi ‘the fight’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

[1] vígi: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, Flat, vági Kˣ, F

notes

[1] at vígi ‘to the fight’: The , F variant at vági ‘to the bay’ is also possible, but it is the minority reading and could have been prompted by the fact that, according to some traditions, Svǫlðr was a bay and not an island (see Note to st. 3/7 above).

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ginðu ‘yawned’

1. gína (verb): gape

notes

[2] ginðu ‘yawned’: This is the 3rd pers. pret. pl. indic. of a weak verb *gina ‘yawn’ (cf. OHG ginēn ‘yawn’; see ANG §482 Anm. 2). Cf. Arn Þorfdr 13/7II.

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Þriðja ‘of Þriði’

þriði (num. ordinal): third

kennings

þunn gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja
‘slender monsters of the land of Þriði ’
   = AXES

the land of Þriði → SHIELD
slender monsters of the SHIELD → AXES

notes

[3, 4] gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja ‘monsters of the land of Þriði <= Óðinn> [SHIELD > AXES]’: Þriði is a name for Óðinn (see Note to Þul Óðins 5/3III). The kenning for ‘axe’ (‘monster of the shield’) is modelled on the pattern ‘troll-woman of the shield’, but it is untraditional (see Meissner 148).

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Þriðja ‘of Þriði’

þriði (num. ordinal): third

kennings

þunn gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja
‘slender monsters of the land of Þriði ’
   = AXES

the land of Þriði → SHIELD
slender monsters of the SHIELD → AXES

notes

[3, 4] gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja ‘monsters of the land of Þriði <= Óðinn> [SHIELD > AXES]’: Þriði is a name for Óðinn (see Note to Þul Óðins 5/3III). The kenning for ‘axe’ (‘monster of the shield’) is modelled on the pattern ‘troll-woman of the shield’, but it is untraditional (see Meissner 148).

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hauðrs ‘of the land’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

[3] hauðrs: auðs Flat

kennings

þunn gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja
‘slender monsters of the land of Þriði ’
   = AXES

the land of Þriði → SHIELD
slender monsters of the SHIELD → AXES

notes

[3, 4] gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja ‘monsters of the land of Þriði <= Óðinn> [SHIELD > AXES]’: Þriði is a name for Óðinn (see Note to Þul Óðins 5/3III). The kenning for ‘axe’ (‘monster of the shield’) is modelled on the pattern ‘troll-woman of the shield’, but it is untraditional (see Meissner 148).

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hauðrs ‘of the land’

hauðr (noun n.): earth, ground

[3] hauðrs: auðs Flat

kennings

þunn gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja
‘slender monsters of the land of Þriði ’
   = AXES

the land of Þriði → SHIELD
slender monsters of the SHIELD → AXES

notes

[3, 4] gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja ‘monsters of the land of Þriði <= Óðinn> [SHIELD > AXES]’: Þriði is a name for Óðinn (see Note to Þul Óðins 5/3III). The kenning for ‘axe’ (‘monster of the shield’) is modelled on the pattern ‘troll-woman of the shield’, but it is untraditional (see Meissner 148).

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þjóðir ‘people’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

[3] þjóðir: þjóði F

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þun ‘’

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þunn ‘slender’

þunnr (adj.): slender, thin

[4] þunn: ‘þun‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, Flat

kennings

þunn gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja
‘slender monsters of the land of Þriði ’
   = AXES

the land of Þriði → SHIELD
slender monsters of the SHIELD → AXES
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galk ‘’

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galku ‘’

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gǫlkn ‘monsters’

galkn (noun n.): [monsters]

[4] ‑gǫlkn: gálkn ok F, ‘galkv’ 325VIII 2 g, ‘galk’ Bb

kennings

þunn gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja
‘slender monsters of the land of Þriði ’
   = AXES

the land of Þriði → SHIELD
slender monsters of the SHIELD → AXES

notes

[3, 4] gǫlkn hauðrs Þriðja ‘monsters of the land of Þriði <= Óðinn> [SHIELD > AXES]’: Þriði is a name for Óðinn (see Note to Þul Óðins 5/3III). The kenning for ‘axe’ (‘monster of the shield’) is modelled on the pattern ‘troll-woman of the shield’, but it is untraditional (see Meissner 148).

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aiarn ‘’

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éarn ‘with iron’

járn (noun n.; °-s; -): iron, weapon < járnmunnr (noun m.): [by iron mouths]

[4] éarn‑: ‘aiarn‑’ Kˣ, ok jarn‑ F, í jarn‑ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, vafit 61, varit 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb, varin Flat

notes

[4] éarnmunnum ‘with iron-mouths’: This refers to axe-blades. The metre requires the older, disyllabic form of the word jarn ‘iron’ (see ANG §133b2; cf. also FGT 1972b, 20-1, Ótt Hfl 8/8 and Note). The cpd occurs in Hfr ErfÓl 6/6 as well. The scribes of the Hkr mss used the later form (jarn-) and added an extra syllable (á ‘on’ , ok ‘and’ F, í ‘in’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ) for metrical reasons, but the resulting phrases cannot be accommodated syntactically. That is also the case with the ÓT variants vafit/varit munnum ‘wrapped with mouths’ (61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g).

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munnum ‘mouths’

munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth < járnmunnr (noun m.): [by iron mouths]munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth < járnmunnr (noun m.): [by iron mouths]munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth

[4] ‑munnum: ‑mǫnnum Bb, Flat

notes

[4] éarnmunnum ‘with iron-mouths’: This refers to axe-blades. The metre requires the older, disyllabic form of the word jarn ‘iron’ (see ANG §133b2; cf. also FGT 1972b, 20-1, Ótt Hfl 8/8 and Note). The cpd occurs in Hfr ErfÓl 6/6 as well. The scribes of the Hkr mss used the later form (jarn-) and added an extra syllable (á ‘on’ , ok ‘and’ F, í ‘in’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ) for metrical reasons, but the resulting phrases cannot be accommodated syntactically. That is also the case with the ÓT variants vafit/varit munnum ‘wrapped with mouths’ (61, 53, 54, 325VIII 2 g).

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Gnýr ‘a din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

Gnýr sverða
‘a din of swords ’
   = BATTLE

a din of swords → BATTLE

notes

[5] gnýr sverða ‘a din of swords [BATTLE]’: Given the emphasis on the sound of weapons in the poem, this phrase could also be taken literally here.

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varð ‘There was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[5] varð: var 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb

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sverða ‘of swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

kennings

Gnýr sverða
‘a din of swords ’
   = BATTLE

a din of swords → BATTLE

notes

[5] gnýr sverða ‘a din of swords [BATTLE]’: Given the emphasis on the sound of weapons in the poem, this phrase could also be taken literally here.

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Gera ‘of Geri’

Geri (noun m.): Geri

[6] Gera: geira 54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb

kennings

beitu Gera;
‘the food of Geri; ’
   = CORPSES

the food of Geri; → CORPSES
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beitꜹ ‘’

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beitu ‘the food’

1. beita (noun f.; °-u; -ur): food, meal

[6] beitu: ‘beitꜹ’ Bb

kennings

beitu Gera;
‘the food of Geri; ’
   = CORPSES

the food of Geri; → CORPSES
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dýrr ‘the worthy’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

kennings

dýrr stjóri drengja
‘the worthy leader of warriors ’
   = RULER = Eiríkr

the worthy leader of warriors → RULER = Eiríkr
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drengja ‘of warriors’

drengr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir, gen. -ja): man, warrior

kennings

dýrr stjóri drengja
‘the worthy leader of warriors ’
   = RULER = Eiríkr

the worthy leader of warriors → RULER = Eiríkr
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stjórri ‘’

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stjóri ‘leader’

stjóri (noun m.; °-a; -ar): steerer

[7] stjóri: ‘stiorri’ Bb

kennings

dýrr stjóri drengja
‘the worthy leader of warriors ’
   = RULER = Eiríkr

the worthy leader of warriors → RULER = Eiríkr
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drótt ‘a company’

1. drótt (noun f.): troop

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

During the battle, the ships with Sigvaldi jarl and his Wendish troops wait at a distance and do not engage in the fighting. When Óláfr Tryggvason jumps overboard from Ormr inn langi, there is a shout of victory from the enemy army, and at that Sigvaldi and his men row towards the battle.

Ms. 61 attributes this stanza to Hallfreðr, and 54, 325VIII 2 g and Bb give Hallar-Steinn as the poet. — [5-8]: This helmingr is composed in the dróttkvætt variant áttmælt ‘eight-times spoken’ (SnSt Ht 10III), in which each line forms an independent clause. — [6]: The identical line is found in ESk Frag 8/2III. Geri was one of Óðinn’s wolves (see Note to ÞKolb Eirdr 17/2, 3). The variant geira ‘of spears’ (54, 325VIII 2 g, Bb) is unmetrical since the metre requires a short first syllable. — [7]: This line recalls Hfr ErfÓl 23/3 dýrr hné dróttar stjóri. — [8]: Cf. Hfr ErfÓl 1/2 mǫrg kom drótt á flótta.

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