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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 90VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 90’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 663-5.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
899091

elskandi ‘to be loved’

2. elska (verb; °-að-): love

[1] elskandi: so 99a, 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, 4892, elskan Bb

notes

[1] elskandi ‘to be loved’: The pres. part. is used as a gerundive. See NS §239b for a discussion of this phenomenon in learned style.

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ein ‘alone’

2. einn (pron.; °decl. cf. einn num.): one, alone

[1] ein: á Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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af ‘among’

af (prep.): from

[1] af: allar Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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sprundum ‘women’

sprund (noun f.): woman

[1] sprundum: lundir Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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ágætust ‘most famous’

ágætr (adj.; °compar. ágǽtari/ágǽtri, superl. ágǽtastr/ágǽztr): excellent

[2] ágætust: ágætr Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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lítillæti ‘your humility’

lítillæti (noun n.): humility

notes

[2] lítillæti ‘humility’: cf. 25/5.

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um ‘’

1. um (prep.): about, around

notes

[3] um bætandi ‘ameliorating’: According to ONP, the idiom bœta [bǿta] um means ‘revise, improve, change for the better, put to rights’. Without the prep., bœta is the word used in religious literature for ‘make amends, atone, do penance (for one’s sins), expiate’.

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bætandi ‘ameliorating’

bœta (verb; °-tt-): better, emend, compensate

notes

[3] um bætandi ‘ameliorating’: According to ONP, the idiom bœta [bǿta] um means ‘revise, improve, change for the better, put to rights’. Without the prep., bœta is the word used in religious literature for ‘make amends, atone, do penance (for one’s sins), expiate’.

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blessuð ‘blessed’

blessa (verb): bless

[4] blessuð: býtir Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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mær ‘maid’

mær (noun f.; °meyjar, dat. meyju; meyjar): maiden

[4] mær þú ert: gæða Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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þú ‘you’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

[4] mær þú ert: gæða Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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ert ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[4] mær þú ert: gæða Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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drotni ‘to the Lord’

dróttinn (noun m.; °dróttins, dat. dróttni (drottini [$1049$]); dróttnar): lord, master

[4] drotni: einglum 99a, hverjum Vb, 41 8°ˣ, ‘ein[...]lom’ 4892

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kærust ‘most dear’

kærr (adj.; °superl. kǽrstr/kǽrastr): dear

[4] kærust: hæri 99a, 4892, æðri Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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Þú ‘You’

þú (pron.; °gen. þín, dat. þér, acc. þik): you

notes

[5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

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ert ‘are’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[5] ert: út Vb

notes

[5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

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hitnandi ‘warm’

hitna (verb): heat, grow hot

[5] hitnandi: hittandi 713, 4892, sendi Vb

notes

[5] hitnandi ‘warm’: Hitna means ‘to be warmed, to become warm, to be enkindled’, and is used both literally (e.g. of a house that becomes warm) and metaphorically. See Fritzner: hitna, and cf. e.g. Árni Gd 10/1-4IV: Unni heitt, sem verkin vátta, | víngarðs eflir drotni sínum, | boðorða hald ok blessuð mildi | bera hitnandi elsku vitni ‘the supporter of the vineyard warmly loved his God, as his deeds attest, his keeping of the commandments and blessed gentleness bear witness to his burning love’. — [5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

Close

hitnandi ‘warm’

hitna (verb): heat, grow hot

[5] hitnandi: hittandi 713, 4892, sendi Vb

notes

[5] hitnandi ‘warm’: Hitna means ‘to be warmed, to become warm, to be enkindled’, and is used both literally (e.g. of a house that becomes warm) and metaphorically. See Fritzner: hitna, and cf. e.g. Árni Gd 10/1-4IV: Unni heitt, sem verkin vátta, | víngarðs eflir drotni sínum, | boðorða hald ok blessuð mildi | bera hitnandi elsku vitni ‘the supporter of the vineyard warmly loved his God, as his deeds attest, his keeping of the commandments and blessed gentleness bear witness to his burning love’. — [5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

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heilags ‘of the Holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

[5] heilags: heilagan 713, 4892, sannleiks Vb

notes

[5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

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anda ‘Spirit’

andi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): spirit, soul

notes

[5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

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höll ‘hall’

1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall

[6] höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum: sáð Abrahams prýddur dáðum Vb;    höll: so 99a, 705ˣ, ‘ho᷎lld’ Bb, höldinn 622, höllinn 713, 4892

notes

[5-6] þú ert hitnandi höll heilags anda ‘you are the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’: The kenning-like phrase hitnandi höll heilags anda has been interpreted variously. Translations include tu es Spiritu sancto incalescens aula ‘you are the warming hall for the Holy Spirit’ (Finnur Jónsson 1772-8, II, 441), ‘the warm Holy Spirit’s hall’ (Eiríkur Magnússon 1870, 91), Prunkpalast des heil’gen Geistes ‘magnificent palace of the Holy Spirit’ (Baumgartner 1884, 68), aandens glødende bolig ‘the glowing dwelling of the Spirit’ (Paasche 1915, 90), den hellig [sic] ånds varme hal ‘the warm hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Skj B), Du bist die warme Wohnung des Heiligen Geistes ‘you are the warm dwelling of the Holy Spirit’ (Lange 1958b, 71) and du er heten i Heilagandens hal ‘you are the warmth in the hall of the Holy Spirit’ (Ødegård 1980, 87). Meissner’s translation (1922, 33), im heiligen Geiste du erglühende, Halle des Herrn, so reich geschmückte ‘you are glowing with the Holy Spirit, dwelling of the Lord, so richly ornamented’, reflects the construction þú ert hitnandi heilags anda, höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum. Meissner apparently did not regard hitnandi heilags anda höll as a kenning: it does not appear in Die Kennningar der Skalden, although he cites examples of analogous kennings of the type ‘hall of God’ (Meissner 424). These circumlocutions are based on the image of Mary as the Theotokos who bore Jesus in her womb (Die Jungfrau, in der der Erlöser beschlossen liegt, is Gottes Haus, Halle, sein Münster, Schrein oder Hochsitz). Meissner cites one example of Mary as the dwelling of the Holy Spirit: she is called sæti heilags anda ‘seat of the Holy Spirit’ in Mgr 2/4 (Meissner 424), and cf. the poem Heilags anda ho᷎llin glæst (ÍM II, 70-2).

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[6] höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum: sáð Abrahams prýddur dáðum Vb;    og: om. 622, 713, 4892

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prýdd ‘ornamented’

prýða (verb): adorn

[6] höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum: sáð Abrahams prýddur dáðum Vb

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með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[6] höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum: sáð Abrahams prýddur dáðum Vb;    með: af 622

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dáðum ‘virtuous deeds’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed

[6] höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum: sáð Abrahams prýddur dáðum Vb

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öllum ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

[6] höll og prýdd með dáðum öllum: sáð Abrahams prýddur dáðum Vb

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ei ‘not’

3. ei (adv.): not

[7] ei: eigi 99a, 713, æ 622

notes

[7] ei kennandi ‘not knowing, not perceiving’: Cf. ei þurfandi ‘not needing’ 1/3.

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kennandi ‘knowing’

kenna (verb): know, teach

notes

[7] ei kennandi ‘not knowing, not perceiving’: Cf. ei þurfandi ‘not needing’ 1/3.

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kvitt ‘free’

2. kvittr (adj.): [free]

[7] kvitt: kvittar Vb

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þraung ‘oppression’

þrǫng (noun f.; °dat. -u/-; -var): crush, oppression

notes

[8] þraung ‘oppression’: The base meanings of the word include ‘throng, oppressive crowd, narrow straits’, which led to the metaphorical meanings ‘hindrance, suffering’. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) translates indskrænkning i kraft (jærtegn) ‘reduction in power (miracles)’. JH notes that this meaning is otherwise unattested and suggests two possible alternative interpretations: 1) Mary is humbly unaware of the great throng of her own powers; or 2) she is not oppressed by the powers and burden of sin. The word occurs elsewhere in Lil with positive as well as negative connotations: þraungum þyrni ‘tightly-wound [crown of] thorns’ 49/5, þraungdr og kvaldr ‘oppressed and tormented’ 79/6, and þraungskorðaðra ‘tightly-set [words of poetry]’ 96/6.

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The order of sts 89 and 90 is reversed in 622, Vb, 41 8°ˣ (134), and 41 8°ˣ (420). The order of the helmingar of st. 90 is reversed in 4892.

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