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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Austv 1I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Austrfararvísur 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 583.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonAustrfararvísur
12

stóra ‘the mighty’

stórr (adj.): large, great < hugstórr (adj.): mighty-hearted

[1] ‑stóra: ‑stóran 61, ‑stóran corrected from stóra 325VII

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heyra ‘to hear’

2. heyra (verb): hear

[1] heyra: heyja Tóm

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hress ‘of the energetic’

hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty < hressfœrr (adj.)hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty < hresslundr (noun m.)hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty < hressfœrr (adj.)hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty < hressfors (noun m.)hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty < hresslyndr (adj.)hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty < hresslyndr (adj.)hress (adj.; °superl. -astr): hearty

[2] hress‑: hvers 68, 61

notes

[2] hressfœrs jǫfurs ‘of the energetic ruler’: The nom. form hressfœrr/hresslyndr jǫfurr found in some mss may be vocative, and is adopted and treated as such by Noreen (1923, 34; also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). An address to the king does not sit well with a request to the retinue for a hearing, however, and the gen. hressfœrs jǫfurs appears to have been the form known to Snorri, since the prose following the stanza implies that Sigvatr addresses the king in the next stanza, not this one.

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fǫrs ‘’

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forst ‘’

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fœrs ‘’

fœrr (adj.): capable < hressfœrr (adj.)

[2] ‑fœrs: ‘fors’ Holm2, 325V, 972ˣ, 68, ‘fǫrs’ R686ˣ, ‑lynds 325VI, fǫr 75a, ‘forst’ 61, ‑lyndr Holm4, 325VII, Tóm, ‑lundr Flat, fœrr Kˣ, dýr Bb

notes

[2] hressfœrs jǫfurs ‘of the energetic ruler’: The nom. form hressfœrr/hresslyndr jǫfurr found in some mss may be vocative, and is adopted and treated as such by Noreen (1923, 34; also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). An address to the king does not sit well with a request to the retinue for a hearing, however, and the gen. hressfœrs jǫfurs appears to have been the form known to Snorri, since the prose following the stanza implies that Sigvatr addresses the king in the next stanza, not this one.

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jǫfurs ‘ruler [Óláfr]’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

[2] jǫfurs: jǫfurr 325V, 61, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, Kˣ

notes

[2] hressfœrs jǫfurs ‘of the energetic ruler’: The nom. form hressfœrr/hresslyndr jǫfurr found in some mss may be vocative, and is adopted and treated as such by Noreen (1923, 34; also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). An address to the king does not sit well with a request to the retinue for a hearing, however, and the gen. hressfœrs jǫfurs appears to have been the form known to Snorri, since the prose following the stanza implies that Sigvatr addresses the king in the next stanza, not this one.

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þolða ‘endured’

þola (verb): suffer, endure

[3] þolðak (‘þolða ec’): þolða Bb

notes

[3] þolðak vás ‘I endured hardship’: The word vás may, as frequently, have the more specific sense of ‘wetness, bad weather’ (cf. st. 9/3 and Note). The present construal is preferable from a syntactic point of view, and is favoured in several eds (from Ternström 1871 to Hkr 1991), though it seems to produce the sense that what Sigvatr proposes to relate is how he composed the verses, rather than the hardships of the journey, as might have been expected. This is presumably the reason that Skj B takes hvé þolðak vás ‘how I endured hardship’ as the clausal object of heyra ‘hear’. However, this produces a ‘syntactic monster’ (so Kock, NN §624), with two sentence elements, including the verb þolðak ‘I endured’, preceding the conj. hvé ‘how’.

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k ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[3] þolðak (‘þolða ec’): þolða Bb

notes

[3] þolðak vás ‘I endured hardship’: The word vás may, as frequently, have the more specific sense of ‘wetness, bad weather’ (cf. st. 9/3 and Note). The present construal is preferable from a syntactic point of view, and is favoured in several eds (from Ternström 1871 to Hkr 1991), though it seems to produce the sense that what Sigvatr proposes to relate is how he composed the verses, rather than the hardships of the journey, as might have been expected. This is presumably the reason that Skj B takes hvé þolðak vás ‘how I endured hardship’ as the clausal object of heyra ‘hear’. However, this produces a ‘syntactic monster’ (so Kock, NN §624), with two sentence elements, including the verb þolðak ‘I endured’, preceding the conj. hvé ‘how’.

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vás ‘hardship’

vás (noun n.; °-s; dat. -um): hardship

notes

[3] þolðak vás ‘I endured hardship’: The word vás may, as frequently, have the more specific sense of ‘wetness, bad weather’ (cf. st. 9/3 and Note). The present construal is preferable from a syntactic point of view, and is favoured in several eds (from Ternström 1871 to Hkr 1991), though it seems to produce the sense that what Sigvatr proposes to relate is how he composed the verses, rather than the hardships of the journey, as might have been expected. This is presumably the reason that Skj B takes hvé þolðak vás ‘how I endured hardship’ as the clausal object of heyra ‘hear’. However, this produces a ‘syntactic monster’ (so Kock, NN §624), with two sentence elements, including the verb þolðak ‘I endured’, preceding the conj. hvé ‘how’.

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hvé ‘how’

hvé (conj.): how

[3] hvé: en 325VI, hvé hvé 75a, ok 61, fyrir Flat

notes

[3] þolðak vás ‘I endured hardship’: The word vás may, as frequently, have the more specific sense of ‘wetness, bad weather’ (cf. st. 9/3 and Note). The present construal is preferable from a syntactic point of view, and is favoured in several eds (from Ternström 1871 to Hkr 1991), though it seems to produce the sense that what Sigvatr proposes to relate is how he composed the verses, rather than the hardships of the journey, as might have been expected. This is presumably the reason that Skj B takes hvé þolðak vás ‘how I endured hardship’ as the clausal object of heyra ‘hear’. However, this produces a ‘syntactic monster’ (so Kock, NN §624), with two sentence elements, including the verb þolðak ‘I endured’, preceding the conj. hvé ‘how’.

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vísur ‘verses’

1. vísa (noun f.; °-u; -ur): verse

[3] vísur: vísir 75a

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verðung ‘retinue’

verðung (noun f.): troop, retinue

[4] verðung: verðumk 325VI

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of ‘about’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[4] of: ⸜um⸝ 75a, ok Flat

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fǫr ‘a journey’

fǫr (noun f.): journey, fate; movement

[4] fǫr: ‘ford’ Bb

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gerðak ‘I composed’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[4] gerðak: ‘giorþ(c)’ R686ˣ, gørva Tóm, gerðat Kˣ

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Sendr ‘sent’

senda (verb): send

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upp ‘up’

upp (adv.): up

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

[5] af: frá 68

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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ǫndrum ‘the skis’

andr (noun m.; °; andrar): ski

kennings

ǫndrum svanvangs
‘the skis of the swan-plain ’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain → SEA
the skis of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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svafk ‘I slept’

sofa (verb): sleep

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í ‘on’

í (prep.): in, into

[6] í: á Kˣ

notes

[6] í hausti ‘in autumn’: This phrase is placed here in the intercalary clause, qualifying svafk ‘I slept’ (so also Kock NN §625, followed by ÍF 27; Jón Skaptason 1983; Hkr 1991). This avoids the tripartite line that results if í hausti is taken with vask sendr ‘I was sent’ (so Skj B), though it is unclear why Sigvatr would refer to autumn in connection with sleeplessness, while the logical connection to his departure is obvious. The present analysis has permitted some (e.g. Edqvist 1943, 63-4) to suppose that the journey began in the spring, though Snorri apparently did not understand the syntax this way since, as noted in the Introduction above, he says that the travellers set out at the beginning of winter. See Notes to st. 10 below.

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hausti ‘autumn’

haust (noun n.; °-s; -): autumn

notes

[6] í hausti ‘in autumn’: This phrase is placed here in the intercalary clause, qualifying svafk ‘I slept’ (so also Kock NN §625, followed by ÍF 27; Jón Skaptason 1983; Hkr 1991). This avoids the tripartite line that results if í hausti is taken with vask sendr ‘I was sent’ (so Skj B), though it is unclear why Sigvatr would refer to autumn in connection with sleeplessness, while the logical connection to his departure is obvious. The present analysis has permitted some (e.g. Edqvist 1943, 63-4) to suppose that the journey began in the spring, though Snorri apparently did not understand the syntax this way since, as noted in the Introduction above, he says that the travellers set out at the beginning of winter. See Notes to st. 10 below.

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til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

notes

[7] til Svíþjóðar ‘to Sweden’: This is Sweden as distinct from Götaland. It is not improbable that the journey described in Austv included travel farther east than Skara in Götaland: see the Introduction.

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Svíþjóðar ‘Sweden’

Svíþjóð (noun f.): [Sweden]

notes

[7] til Svíþjóðar ‘to Sweden’: This is Sweden as distinct from Götaland. It is not improbable that the journey described in Austv included travel farther east than Skara in Götaland: see the Introduction.

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síðan ‘after that’

síðan (adv.): later, then

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svan ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanvangr (noun m.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanfang (noun n.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanvagn (noun m.): swan-wagonsvanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

kennings

ǫndrum svanvangs
‘the skis of the swan-plain ’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain → SEA
the skis of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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svan ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanvangr (noun m.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanfang (noun n.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanvagn (noun m.): swan-wagonsvanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

kennings

ǫndrum svanvangs
‘the skis of the swan-plain ’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain → SEA
the skis of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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vógns ‘’

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vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < svanvangr (noun m.)

[8] ‑vangs: ‑vagns 325V, ‑fangs 68, 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, ‘vógns’ Bb

kennings

ǫndrum svanvangs
‘the skis of the swan-plain ’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain → SEA
the skis of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < svanvangr (noun m.)

[8] ‑vangs: ‑vagns 325V, ‑fangs 68, 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, ‘vógns’ Bb

kennings

ǫndrum svanvangs
‘the skis of the swan-plain ’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain → SEA
the skis of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[5, 8] upp af ǫndrum svanvangs ‘up from the skis of the swan-plain [SEA > SHIPS]’: Snorri must have understood the phrase to mean simply that Sigvatr and his companions travelled inland, given the point of departure and route of travel he describes in this chapter (see the Introduction). Some scholars have taken it to mean that the first part of the journey was accomplished on shipboard: see, e.g., Barði Guðmundsson (1927, 548).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

When Sigvatr returns from his journey to the east, he tells of his travels and speaks the following verses (vísur þessar, referring to this and sts 17-20, which follow with only brief interruption).

[1]: The line is a borrowing from the well-known Eskál Vell 1/1, as pointed out by de Vries (1964-7, I, 244).

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