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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hókr Eirfl 4I

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2012, ‘Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 477.

Halldórr ókristniEiríksflokkr
345

Gerðis ‘’

gerði (noun n.)

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Gerðisk ‘took place’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[1] Gerðisk: ‘[…]ðiz’ 325VIII 1, Gerðis 310

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snarpra ‘of sharp’

snarpr (adj.): sharp, keen

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slitu ‘demolished’

slíta (verb): to tear

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frið ‘the peace’

friðr (noun m.): peace

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lengi ‘for a long time’

lengi (adv.): for a long time

notes

[2] lengi ‘for a long time’: This adv. could alternatively go with the first clause of the helmingr (so Skald; NN §2988A; ÍF 26). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) takes it with the second intercalary clause, hence þars gollin spjǫr gullu lengi ‘where golden spears resounded for a long time’, which is less likely.

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þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

[3] þars (‘þar er’): ‘þar[…]’ 325VIII 1, ‘þarer er’ Flat, þá er FskAˣ, 4‑7

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gyllin ‘’

gyllinn (adj.)

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gollin ‘golden’

gullinn (adj.): golden

[3] gollin: so 54, Flat, gullin Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, FskAˣ, Holm18, 310, ‘[…]ín’ 325VIII 1, golli‑ Bb, ‘gyllín’ 4‑7

notes

[3] gollin spjǫr ‘golden spears’: Spearheads and spear sockets could be inlaid or decorated with gold and silver (see Falk 1914b, 88-9). The 54 variant gollin has been adopted here rather than gullin (so the majority of the ms. witnesses), because [u] is not attested in internal rhyme until the C12th (see LP: goll, gull).

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spjǫr ‘spears’

spjǫr (noun n.): spear

notes

[3] gollin spjǫr ‘golden spears’: Spearheads and spear sockets could be inlaid or decorated with gold and silver (see Falk 1914b, 88-9). The 54 variant gollin has been adopted here rather than gullin (so the majority of the ms. witnesses), because [u] is not attested in internal rhyme until the C12th (see LP: goll, gull).

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of ‘on’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[4] of: á J1ˣ, J2ˣ

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Orm ‘Ormr’

ormr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): serpent

[4] Orm inn: ‘ormin’ FskAˣ, Holm18

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: See Note to st. 3/4 above. The line is echoed in HSt Rst 19/4 (see also Rst 22/4).

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inn ‘inn’

2. inn (art.): the

[4] Orm inn: ‘ormin’ FskAˣ, Holm18

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: See Note to st. 3/4 above. The line is echoed in HSt Rst 19/4 (see also Rst 22/4).

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langa ‘langi (‘the Long Serpent’)’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

notes

[4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: See Note to st. 3/4 above. The line is echoed in HSt Rst 19/4 (see also Rst 22/4).

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duerks ‘’

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Dolgs ‘of battle’

dolgr (noun m.; °dat. -; -ar): enemy, battle

[5] Dolgs: ‘d[…]’ 325VIII 1, ‘duerks’ Flat

kennings

danska runna dolgs
‘Danish bushes of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

Danish bushes of battle → WARRIORS
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kuðu ‘’

Close

kuþu ‘’

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kvôðu ‘They said’

2. kveðja (verb): say, greet

[5] kvôðu: ‘kuþu’ J1ˣ, ‘kuðu’ J2ˣ, ‘kuað[...]’ 4‑7

notes

[5] kvôðu ‘they said’: Construed with the inf. fylgja ‘follow’ (l. 5). The use of the verb shows that Halldórr, just like Hallfreðr, was not present at the battle but is basing his account on hearsay.

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framm ‘forward’

fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away

[5] framm: ‘[…]’ 4‑7

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fylgja ‘followed’

2. fylgja (verb): follow, accompany

[5] fylgja: fljúga 325VIII 1

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fráns ‘of the glittering’

2. fránn (adj.): bright, shining

[6] fráns: frán F, Holm18, 310, ‘frons’ 4‑7

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE
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fráns ‘of the glittering’

2. fránn (adj.): bright, shining

[6] fráns: frán F, Holm18, 310, ‘frons’ 4‑7

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

leg ‘’

Close

legg ‘leg’

leggr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): limb < leggbiti (noun m.): [leg-biter]

[6] leggbita: leggs víta F, legbita J1ˣ, leygs boða Holm18

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[6] leggbita ‘leg-biter [SWORD]’: Leggbiti (or Leggbítr) was the name of the sword of King Magnús berfœttr ‘Barelegs’ Óláfsson (d. 1103), but the word must be used here as a kenning belonging to a rare type in which a sword is personified (see Meissner 163-4 and Note to Þul Sverða 2/5III).

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legg ‘leg’

leggr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): limb < leggbiti (noun m.): [leg-biter]

[6] leggbita: leggs víta F, legbita J1ˣ, leygs boða Holm18

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[6] leggbita ‘leg-biter [SWORD]’: Leggbiti (or Leggbítr) was the name of the sword of King Magnús berfœttr ‘Barelegs’ Óláfsson (d. 1103), but the word must be used here as a kenning belonging to a rare type in which a sword is personified (see Meissner 163-4 and Note to Þul Sverða 2/5III).

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bita ‘biter’

biti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): mouthful, bite < leggbiti (noun m.): [leg-biter]biti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): mouthful, bite

[6] leggbita: leggs víta F, legbita J1ˣ, leygs boða Holm18

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[6] leggbita ‘leg-biter [SWORD]’: Leggbiti (or Leggbítr) was the name of the sword of King Magnús berfœttr ‘Barelegs’ Óláfsson (d. 1103), but the word must be used here as a kenning belonging to a rare type in which a sword is personified (see Meissner 163-4 and Note to Þul Sverða 2/5III).

Close

bita ‘biter’

biti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): mouthful, bite < leggbiti (noun m.): [leg-biter]biti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): mouthful, bite

[6] leggbita: leggs víta F, legbita J1ˣ, leygs boða Holm18

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE

notes

[6] leggbita ‘leg-biter [SWORD]’: Leggbiti (or Leggbítr) was the name of the sword of King Magnús berfœttr ‘Barelegs’ Óláfsson (d. 1103), but the word must be used here as a kenning belonging to a rare type in which a sword is personified (see Meissner 163-4 and Note to Þul Sverða 2/5III).

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senska ‘’

Close

svænska ‘’

svenskr (adj.)

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sœnska ‘that Swedish’

sœnskr (adj.): Swedish

[7] sœnska: ‘[…]ka’ 325VIII 1, svænska 54, Bb, FskAˣ, 310, ‘senska’ Holm18

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at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[7] at: ok J1ˣ, í J2ˣ

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sennu ‘the flyting’

1. senna (noun f.; °; -ur): quarrel

[7] sennu: ‘sonno’ 325VIII 1

kennings

sennu fráns leggbita.
‘the flyting of the glittering leg-biter. ’
   = BATTLE

the glittering leg-biter. → SWORD
the flyting of the SWORD → BATTLE
Close

sunz ‘’

Close

sunnr ‘in the south’

sunnr (adv.): south

[8] sunnr: suðr 325VIII 1, 310, sunz 4‑7

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ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[8] ok: í FskAˣ

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danska ‘Danish’

danskr (adj.): Danish

[8] danska: danskra Flat

kennings

danska runna dolgs
‘Danish bushes of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

Danish bushes of battle → WARRIORS
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runna ‘bushes’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

kennings

danska runna dolgs
‘Danish bushes of battle ’
   = WARRIORS

Danish bushes of battle → WARRIORS
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Fsk and ÓTOdd this stanza follows immediately after st. 3, whereas in Hkr and ÓT it describes the preamble to the final battle on Ormr inn langi and precedes st. 3 (see Introduction above). According to that version, the Swedish and Danish troops attack Óláfr’s ships, while Eiríkr is always fighting alongside the ships, engaging in hand to hand battle. When men fall on his ship, they are immediately replaced by Swedish and Danish warriors.

[1]: With this line, compare Bjbp Jóms 28/5 grimmr var snarpra sverða and Hfr ErfÓl 17/3 snǫrp varð at þat sverða. — [2]: The rhyme words dreng- and leng- also occur in Hfr ErfÓl 10/8. — [7]: The rhyme words menn and sennu are also used in Hfr ErfÓl 10/8. — [8]: The line is reminiscent of Eskál Vell 25/4 sunnr Danmarkar runnu; see Introduction on the relationship of Eirfl to Vell.

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