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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hókr Eirfl 4I

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2012, ‘Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 477.

Halldórr ókristniEiríksflokkr
345

Gerðisk snarpra sverða
— slitu drengir frið lengi,
þars gollin spjǫr gullu —
gangr of Orm inn langa.
Dolgs kvôðu framm fylgja
fráns leggbita hônum
sœnska menn at sennu
sunnr ok danska runna.

Gangr snarpra sverða gerðisk of Orm inn langa; drengir slitu frið lengi, þars gollin spjǫr gullu. Kvôðu sœnska menn ok {danska runna dolgs} fylgja hônum framm sunnr at {sennu {fráns leggbita}}.

A tumult of sharp swords took place on Ormr inn langi (‘the Long Serpent’); warriors demolished the peace for a long time where golden spears resounded. They said that Swedish men and {Danish bushes of battle} [WARRIORS] followed him [Eiríkr] forward in the south at {the flyting {of the glittering leg-biter}} [SWORD > BATTLE].

Mss: (212r), F(36ra), J1ˣ(131v), J2ˣ(114v), 325VIII 1(5rb) (Hkr); 54(64va), Bb(100rb), Flat(64vb) (ÓT); FskAˣ(139) (Fsk); Holm18(53r), 310(89), 4-7(1rb) (ÓTOdd)

Readings: [1] Gerðisk: ‘[…]ðiz’ 325VIII 1, Gerðis 310    [3] þars (‘þar er’): ‘þar[…]’ 325VIII 1, ‘þarer er’ Flat, þá er FskAˣ, 4‑7;    gollin: so 54, Flat, gullin Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, FskAˣ, Holm18, 310, ‘[…]ín’ 325VIII 1, golli‑ Bb, ‘gyllín’ 4‑7    [4] of: á J1ˣ, J2ˣ;    Orm inn: ‘ormin’ FskAˣ, Holm18    [5] Dolgs: ‘d[…]’ 325VIII 1, ‘duerks’ Flat;    kvôðu: ‘kuþu’ J1ˣ, ‘kuðu’ J2ˣ, ‘kuað[...]’ 4‑7;    framm: ‘[…]’ 4‑7;    fylgja: fljúga 325VIII 1    [6] fráns: frán F, Holm18, 310, ‘frons’ 4‑7;    leggbita: leggs víta F, legbita J1ˣ, leygs boða Holm18    [7] sœnska: ‘[…]ka’ 325VIII 1, svænska 54, Bb, FskAˣ, 310, ‘senska’ Holm18;    at: ok J1ˣ, í J2ˣ;    sennu: ‘sonno’ 325VIII 1    [8] sunnr: suðr 325VIII 1, 310, sunz 4‑7;    ok: í FskAˣ;    danska: danskra Flat

Editions: Skj AI, 203, Skj BI, 193-4, Skald I, 102, NN §2988A; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 445, IV, 97-8, ÍF 26, 360 (ÓTHkr ch. 106), F 1871, 163; ÓT 1958-2000, II, 272 (ch. 251), Flat 1860-8, I, 485 ; Fsk 1902-3, 127-8 (ch. 22), ÍF 29, 156 (ch. 24); ÓTOdd 1932, 222-3, ÍF 25, 338.

Context: In Fsk and ÓTOdd this stanza follows immediately after st. 3, whereas in Hkr and ÓT it describes the preamble to the final battle on Ormr inn langi and precedes st. 3 (see Introduction above). According to that version, the Swedish and Danish troops attack Óláfr’s ships, while Eiríkr is always fighting alongside the ships, engaging in hand to hand battle. When men fall on his ship, they are immediately replaced by Swedish and Danish warriors.

Notes: [1]: With this line, compare Bjbp Jóms 28/5 grimmr var snarpra sverða and Hfr ErfÓl 17/3 snǫrp varð at þat sverða. — [2]: The rhyme words dreng- and leng- also occur in Hfr ErfÓl 10/8. — [2] lengi ‘for a long time’: This adv. could alternatively go with the first clause of the helmingr (so Skald; NN §2988A; ÍF 26). Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) takes it with the second intercalary clause, hence þars gollin spjǫr gullu lengi ‘where golden spears resounded for a long time’, which is less likely. — [3] gollin spjǫr ‘golden spears’: Spearheads and spear sockets could be inlaid or decorated with gold and silver (see Falk 1914b, 88-9). The 54 variant gollin has been adopted here rather than gullin (so the majority of the ms. witnesses), because [u] is not attested in internal rhyme until the C12th (see LP: goll, gull). — [4] Orm inn langa ‘Ormr inn langi (“the Long Serpent”)’: See Note to st. 3/4 above. The line is echoed in HSt Rst 19/4 (see also Rst 22/4). — [5] kvôðu ‘they said’: Construed with the inf. fylgja ‘follow’ (l. 5). The use of the verb shows that Halldórr, just like Hallfreðr, was not present at the battle but is basing his account on hearsay. — [6] leggbita ‘leg-biter [SWORD]’: Leggbiti (or Leggbítr) was the name of the sword of King Magnús berfœttr ‘Barelegs’ Óláfsson (d. 1103), but the word must be used here as a kenning belonging to a rare type in which a sword is personified (see Meissner 163-4 and Note to Þul Sverða 2/5III). — [7]: The rhyme words menn and sennu are also used in Hfr ErfÓl 10/8. — [8]: The line is reminiscent of Eskál Vell 25/4 sunnr Danmarkar runnu; see Introduction on the relationship of Eirfl to Vell.

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  6. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  8. ÓTOdd 1932 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1932. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar af Oddr Snorrason munk. Copenhagen: Gad.
  9. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  10. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  11. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  12. Falk, Hjalmar. 1914b. Altnordische Waffenkunde. Videnskapsselskapets skrifter, II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1914, 6. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  13. Fsk 1902-3 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1902-3. Fagrskinna: Nóregs kononga tal. SUGNL 30. Copenhagen: Møller.
  14. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  15. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  16. ÍF 25 = Færeyinga saga; Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar eptir Odd munk Snorrason. Ed. Ólafur Halldórsson. 2006.
  17. Internal references
  18. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  19. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  20. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘The Greatest Saga of Óláfr Tryggvason / Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar in mesta (ÓT)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxiii-clxvi.
  21. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar by Oddr Snorrason (ÓTOdd)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clxxiv-clxxv.
  22. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 791.
  23. Edith Marold with the assistance of Vivian Busch, Jana Krüger, Ann-Dörte Kyas and Katharina Seidel, translated from German by John Foulks 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 280.
  24. Kari Ellen Gade 2012, ‘(Introduction to) Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 469.
  25. Emily Lethbridge (ed.) 2012, ‘Bjarni byskup Kolbeinsson, Jómsvíkingadrápa 28’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 983.
  26. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 25’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 314.
  27. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 19’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 919.
  28. Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 22’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 922.
  29. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 415.
  30. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 17’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 424.
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