Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 791.
Skolkr, skerkir, stúfr, Skrýmir, Laufi,
ǫltirr, langbarðr ok ormþvari,
Leggbiti, kyrr, galmr ok Leifnisgrand,
herberi, Hneitir ok hræfrakki.
Skolkr, skerkir, stúfr, Skrýmir, Laufi, ǫltirr, langbarðr ok ormþvari, Leggbiti, kyrr, galmr ok Leifnisgrand, herberi, Hneitir ok hræfrakki.
Frightener, noise-maker, stump, Skrýmir, Laufi, ale-blade, Lombardic [sword] and serpent-borer, Leggbiti, quiet one, clanging one and Leifnir’s injury, war-striker, Hneitir and carrion-spear.
Mss: R(42v), Tˣ(44v), C(12r), A(18v), B(8v), 744ˣ(67r) (SnE)
Readings:  Skolkr: Skolkr ok Tˣ, Skálkr A, Skalkr B; skerkir: ‘sker[…]ir’ B, skerkir 744ˣ; stúfr: ‘skofr ok’ C  ǫltirr: ‘aultir’ Tˣ, ǫltir A, ‘ockír’ B; langbarðr: ‘lannbarðr’ A  ok: om. C  ‑biti: ‑bítr A; kyrr galmr: so A, ok kyrr R, Tˣ, C, hyrr galmr B  ‑grand: ‑gandr B  herberi Hneitir: so Tˣ, A, B, herberi heitir R, heitir herberi C  hræfrakki: so C, ‘hafrakan’ R, Tˣ, ‘hafraka’ A, B
Notes:  skolkr (m.) ‘frightener’: This word is also listed in Þul Hjálms (skolkr or skólkr, st. 1/5; see Note there). Falk (1914b, 59) adopts the A, B variant skálkr or skalkr (so also the LaufE mss). That word may be a homonym to skálkr m. ‘servant’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 118, II, 389). Neither variant is used as a heiti for ‘sword’ in poetry. —  skerkir (m.) ‘noise-maker’: An agent noun from a weak verb *skerkja ‘make noise’, from skark n. ‘noise, tumult’. The word is also found as a heiti for ‘fire’ and ‘giant’ (Þul Elds 1/6, Þul Jǫtna I 4/4), but it does not occur elsewhere. It could be that the sword-heiti is used in the sense ‘fire’, because terms for ‘fire’ frequently appear as base-words in sword-kennings. —  stúfr (m.) ‘stump’: Possibly a short sword or a dagger. Stúfr is also recorded as heiti for ‘ox’ and ‘horse’ (Þul Øxna 2/5 and Þul Hesta 1/8) but never used in Old Norse poetry as a term for ‘sword’, ‘ox’ or ‘horse’. According to Finnur Jónsson (1926-8: stúfr), the word appears frequently in the rímur as a horse-heiti. Based on the C variant ‘skofr’, Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by Skald) and Falk (1914b, 60) emend to skúfr, a poetic term for ‘sword’ (see Arn Hardr 3/5II and Note there), which Falk connects with skúfr ‘tassel’ (perhaps referring to a decorated hilt). Although attractive, that emendation goes against all other ms. witnesses and is hardly warranted. —  Skrýmir: Lit. ‘one large in appearance’. Steinarr Ǫnundarson’s sword in Kormáks saga (Korm ch. 12, ÍF 8, 250-3; cf. Eg ch. 84, ÍF 2, 292). According to Falk (1914b, 59), the name is derived from a verb *skrýma (cf. New Norw. skrymja, ModSwed. skrymma ‘occupy a large space’), while Kahle (1903, 209) assumes that the stem-vowel was short and traces it to skrum n. ‘swaggering talk’ (hence ‘chatterer’). The long stem-vowel is secured by the metre, however. The word does not occur elsewhere as a heiti for ‘sword’, but it is a heiti for ‘giant’ (Þul Jǫtna I 4/3; see Note there) and another name for the giant Útgarðaloki (see SnE 2005, 38-9). —  Laufi: The sword owned by the legendary hero Bǫðvarr bjarki (see Note to st. 1/7 above). Laufi may refer to a birch-sheath decorated with golden staples shaped as leaves (cf. lauf n. ‘leaf, foliage’; Falk 1914b, 54). Alternatively, the term might allude to a pattern-welded blade with markings resembling the veins in a leaf (see Fisher and Davidson 1979-80, II, 45 n. 50). The name does not appear in Hrólfs saga kraka, but it is found in Bjarkarímur (Hrólf 1904, 125, 130, 134, 143, 160-1) and is mentioned in Ldn (ÍF 1, 212-13), Þórðar saga hreðu (ch. 2, ÍS III, 2011) and in Saxo (Løui; Saxo 2005, I, 2, 6, 11, pp. 168-9). In skaldic poetry laufi m. is used as a heiti for ‘sword’ in general. —  ǫltirr (m.) ‘ale-blade’: Not attested elsewhere as a cpd. The first element ǫl ‘ale’ could possibly be the same as alu, a runic word used as a protective formula (see AEW: alu, ǫltirr), and the second element -tirr = tjǫr(r), a poetic term for ‘sword’ or ‘spear’. This could be an enchanted sword marked with magic runes (Falk 1914b, 64). See also ǫlrúnar ‘ale-runes, protective runes’ in Sigdr 7/1 (NK 191). —  langbarðr (m.) ‘Lombardic [sword]’: Lit. ‘long-beard’. This was probably originally a term for a sword from Lombardy (Falk 1914b, 54), which became a heiti for ‘sword’ in general. See also langbarðr ‘long-bearded one’ as heiti for Óðinn and ‘serpent’ (Þul Óðins 7/6 and Þul Orma 3/3). —  ormþvari (m.) ‘serpent-borer’: This sword-heiti does not appear in other Old Norse sources, but the word þvari ‘borer, gimlet, drill’, which originally denoted a short, dagger-like sword (Falk 1914b, 48), is frequent as a second element in personal names (e.g. Dolgþvari, a dwarf in Gylf, SnE 2005, 16, and Blapþvari, a giant in Þul Jǫtna I 3/4). Cf. also Brynþvari, Hrǫngviðr’s sword in Hrómundar saga Greipssonar (FSN II, 366), as well as other heiti with the second element ‑þvari, such as eyþvari (Þul Øxna 1/6). The first element, orm-, may refer to a serpent-like decoration on the hilt (so Falk 1914b, 57). Alternatively, the sword-heiti could be derived from a legendary story about the slaying of a dragon. See also vindþvari (st. 6/4). —  Leggbiti: Lit. ‘legbiter’, the name of Magnús berfœttr’s sword in the kings’ sagas (Mork, ÍF 24, 68-9; Hkr, ÍF 28, 235; Fsk, ÍF 29, 314). Mss R, Tˣ, C and B, as well Mork, give the second element as ‑biti, while ms. A, the LaufE mss, Hkr and Fsk have ‑bítr. Leggbiti is used as a common noun in a battle-kenning (Hókr Eirfl 4/6I); see also Kvernbiti (st. 6/5 below). —  kyrr (m.) ‘quiet one’: Or perhaps kýrr. From the adj. kyrr ‘quiet’, and not otherwise attested as a heiti for ‘sword’. It is unlikely that the heiti has any connection with the bull-heiti Kýrr in Anon Þorgþ II l. 4 (see Falk 1914b, 54). The B variant hyrr m. ‘fire’ must be a lectio facilior (the LaufE mss have ‘kyr-’). —  galmr (m.) ‘clanging one’: A hap. leg. The heiti is recorded only in mss A and B. The LaufE mss have ‘-gralmur’ (papp10ˣ), ‘-glamur’ (2368ˣ), ‘-galmr’ (743ˣ). In Old Norse, galm(r) is found only in place names (e.g. Galmarstrǫnd). The word is probably a verbal adj. from a verb *galma or *gelma; cf. ModSwed. dialects galma ‘cry’, OHG galm ‘clang’. See also gelmingr ‘clamourer’ (st. 12/1) and ‑gelmir as a second element in giant-names (e.g. Þrúðgelmir and Aurgelmir, Þul Jǫtna I 2/7, 5/5). —  Leifnisgrand ‘Leifnir’s injury’: This cpd, which is not attested elsewhere, may be a sword-kenning, from Leifnir, a sea-king (Þul Sækonunga 4/2), and grand n. ‘harm’. The B variant gandr m. ‘magic staff, witchcraft, wolf’ is not supported by the LaufE mss. —  herberi (m.) ‘war-striker’: The first element is herr m. ‘host’ (‘war-’ in compounds) and the second is related to the weak verb berja ‘strike, hit’ (cf. also fellir ‘feller’, st. 6/1). The cpd is not found elsewhere. —  Hneitir: Lit. ‘wounder’. The name of S. Óláfr’s sword (cf. Note to ESk Geisl 43VII [All]), which is used in skaldic verse as a heiti for ‘sword’ in general. It is an agent noun derived from the weak verb hneita ‘cut, wound’. —  hræfrakki (m.) ‘carrion-spear’: This variant is found only in C, while the other mss have the obscure forms ‘hafrakan’ (R, Tˣ) or ‘hafraka’ (A, B and the LaufE mss) (perhaps ‘sea-borne one’; see ÍO: hafrakan, hafraka). The C variant is supported by hræfrakki in GSúrs Lv 1/1V (Gísl 2), although in that stanza hræfrakki is a poetic term for ‘spear’ (see frakka f. ‘Frankish [spear]’, Þul Spjóts l. 7), which was most likely misinterpreted by the compiler of the present þula as a heiti for ‘sword’ (Falk 1914b, 52, 75; ÍF 6, 11 n. 4).
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