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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þul Sverða 2III

Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sverða heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 791.

Anonymous ÞulurSverða heiti
123

Skolkr, skerkir, stúfr,         Skrýmir, Laufi,
ǫltirr, langbarðr         ok ormþvari,
Leggbiti, kyrr, galmr         ok Leifnisgrand,
herberi, Hneitir         ok hræfrakki.

Skolkr, skerkir, stúfr, Skrýmir, Laufi, ǫltirr, langbarðr ok ormþvari, Leggbiti, kyrr, galmr ok Leifnisgrand, herberi, Hneitir ok hræfrakki.

Frightener, noise-maker, stump, Skrýmir, Laufi, ale-blade, Lombardic [sword] and serpent-borer, Leggbiti, quiet one, clanging one and Leifnir’s injury, war-striker, Hneitir and carrion-spear.

Mss: R(42v), Tˣ(44v), C(12r), A(18v), B(8v), 744ˣ(67r) (SnE)

Readings: [1] Skolkr: Skolkr ok Tˣ, Skálkr A, Skalkr B;    skerkir: ‘sker[…]ir’ B, skerkir 744ˣ;    stúfr: ‘skofr ok’ C    [3] ǫltirr: ‘aultir’ Tˣ, ǫltir A, ‘ockír’ B;    langbarðr: ‘lannbarðr’ A    [4] ok: om. C    [5] ‑biti: ‑bítr A;    kyrr galmr: so A, ok kyrr R, Tˣ, C, hyrr galmr B    [6] ‑grand: ‑gandr B    [7] herberi Hneitir: so Tˣ, A, B, herberi heitir R, heitir herberi C    [8] hræfrakki: so C, ‘hafrakan’ R, Tˣ, ‘hafraka’ A, B

Editions: Skj AI, 662, Skj BI, 663, Skald I, 328, NN §3138, SnE 1848-87, I, 565, II, 476, 559, 619, SnE 1931, 200, SnE 1998, I, 118-19.

Notes: [1] skolkr (m.) ‘frightener’: This word is also listed in Þul Hjálms (skolkr or skólkr, st. 1/5; see Note there). Falk (1914b, 59) adopts the A, B variant skálkr or skalkr (so also the LaufE mss). That word may be a homonym to skálkr m. ‘servant’ (cf. SnE 1998, I, 118, II, 389). Neither variant is used as a heiti for ‘sword’ in poetry. — [1] skerkir (m.) ‘noise-maker’: An agent noun from a weak verb *skerkja ‘make noise’, from skark n. ‘noise, tumult’. The word is also found as a heiti for ‘fire’ and ‘giant’ (Þul Elds 1/6, Þul Jǫtna I 4/4), but it does not occur elsewhere. It could be that the sword-heiti is used in the sense ‘fire’, because terms for ‘fire’ frequently appear as base-words in sword-kennings. — [1] stúfr (m.) ‘stump’: Possibly a short sword or a dagger. Stúfr is also recorded as heiti for ‘ox’ and ‘horse’ (Þul Øxna 2/5 and Þul Hesta 1/8) but never used in Old Norse poetry as a term for ‘sword’, ‘ox’ or ‘horse’. According to Finnur Jónsson (1926-8: stúfr), the word appears frequently in the rímur as a horse-heiti. Based on the C variant ‘skofr’, Finnur Jónsson (Skj B, followed by Skald) and Falk (1914b, 60) emend to skúfr, a poetic term for ‘sword’ (see Arn Hardr 3/5II and Note there), which Falk connects with skúfr ‘tassel’ (perhaps referring to a decorated hilt). Although attractive, that emendation goes against all other ms. witnesses and is hardly warranted. — [2] Skrýmir: Lit. ‘one large in appearance’. Steinarr Ǫnundarson’s sword in Kormáks saga (Korm ch. 12, ÍF 8, 250-3; cf. Eg ch. 84, ÍF 2, 292). According to Falk (1914b, 59), the name is derived from a verb *skrýma (cf. New Norw. skrymja, ModSwed. skrymma ‘occupy a large space’), while Kahle (1903, 209) assumes that the stem-vowel was short and traces it to skrum n. ‘swaggering talk’ (hence ‘chatterer’). The long stem-vowel is secured by the metre, however. The word does not occur elsewhere as a heiti for ‘sword’, but it is a heiti for ‘giant’ (Þul Jǫtna I 4/3; see Note there) and another name for the giant Útgarðaloki (see SnE 2005, 38-9). — [2] Laufi: The sword owned by the legendary hero Bǫðvarr bjarki (see Note to st. 1/7 above). Laufi may refer to a birch-sheath decorated with golden staples shaped as leaves (cf. lauf n. ‘leaf, foliage’; Falk 1914b, 54). Alternatively, the term might allude to a pattern-welded blade with markings resembling the veins in a leaf (see Fisher and Davidson 1979-80, II, 45 n. 50). The name does not appear in Hrólfs saga kraka, but it is found in Bjarkarímur (Hrólf 1904, 125, 130, 134, 143, 160-1) and is mentioned in Ldn (ÍF 1, 212-13), Þórðar saga hreðu (ch. 2, ÍS III, 2011) and in Saxo (Løui; Saxo 2005, I, 2, 6, 11, pp. 168-9). In skaldic poetry laufi m. is used as a heiti for ‘sword’ in general. — [3] ǫltirr (m.) ‘ale-blade’: Not attested elsewhere as a cpd. The first element ǫl ‘ale’ could possibly be the same as alu, a runic word used as a protective formula (see AEW: alu, ǫltirr), and the second element -tirr = tjǫr(r), a poetic term for ‘sword’ or ‘spear’. This could be an enchanted sword marked with magic runes (Falk 1914b, 64). See also ǫlrúnar ‘ale-runes, protective runes’ in Sigdr 7/1 (NK 191). — [3] langbarðr (m.) ‘Lombardic [sword]’: Lit. ‘long-beard’. This was probably originally a term for a sword from Lombardy (Falk 1914b, 54), which became a heiti for ‘sword’ in general. See also langbarðr ‘long-bearded one’ as heiti for Óðinn and ‘serpent’ (Þul Óðins 7/6 and Þul Orma 3/3). — [4] ormþvari (m.) ‘serpent-borer’: This sword-heiti does not appear in other Old Norse sources, but the word þvari ‘borer, gimlet, drill’, which originally denoted a short, dagger-like sword (Falk 1914b, 48), is frequent as a second element in personal names (e.g. Dolgþvari, a dwarf in Gylf, SnE 2005, 16, and Blapþvari, a giant in Þul Jǫtna I 3/4). Cf. also Brynþvari, Hrǫngviðr’s sword in Hrómundar saga Greipssonar (FSN II, 366), as well as other heiti with the second element ‑þvari, such as eyþvari (Þul Øxna 1/6). The first element, orm-, may refer to a serpent-like decoration on the hilt (so Falk 1914b, 57). Alternatively, the sword-heiti could be derived from a legendary story about the slaying of a dragon. See also vindþvari (st. 6/4). — [5] Leggbiti: Lit. ‘legbiter’, the name of Magnús berfœttr’s sword in the kings’ sagas (Mork, ÍF 24, 68-9; Hkr, ÍF 28, 235; Fsk, ÍF 29, 314). Mss R, , C and B, as well Mork, give the second element as ‑biti, while ms. A, the LaufE mss, Hkr and Fsk have ‑bítr. Leggbiti is used as a common noun in a battle-kenning (Hókr Eirfl 4/6I); see also Kvernbiti (st. 6/5 below). — [5] kyrr (m.) ‘quiet one’: Or perhaps kýrr. From the adj. kyrr ‘quiet’, and not otherwise attested as a heiti for ‘sword’. It is unlikely that the heiti has any connection with the bull-heiti Kýrr in Anon Þorgþ II l. 4 (see Falk 1914b, 54). The B variant hyrr m. ‘fire’ must be a lectio facilior (the LaufE mss have ‘kyr-’). — [5] galmr (m.) ‘clanging one’: A hap. leg. The heiti is recorded only in mss A and B. The LaufE mss have ‘-gralmur’ (papp10ˣ), ‘-glamur’ (2368ˣ), ‘-galmr’ (743ˣ). In Old Norse, galm(r) is found only in place names (e.g. Galmarstrǫnd). The word is probably a verbal adj. from a verb *galma or *gelma; cf. ModSwed. dialects galma ‘cry’, OHG galm ‘clang’. See also gelmingr ‘clamourer’ (st. 12/1) and ‑gelmir as a second element in giant-names (e.g. Þrúðgelmir and Aurgelmir, Þul Jǫtna I 2/7, 5/5). — [6] Leifnisgrand ‘Leifnir’s injury’: This cpd, which is not attested elsewhere, may be a sword-kenning, from Leifnir, a sea-king (Þul Sækonunga 4/2), and grand n. ‘harm’. The B variant gandr m. ‘magic staff, witchcraft, wolf’ is not supported by the LaufE mss. — [7] herberi (m.) ‘war-striker’: The first element is herr m. ‘host’ (‘war-’ in compounds) and the second is related to the weak verb berja ‘strike, hit’ (cf. also fellir ‘feller’, st. 6/1). The cpd is not found elsewhere. — [7] Hneitir: Lit. ‘wounder’. The name of S. Óláfr’s sword (cf. Note to ESk Geisl 43VII [All]), which is used in skaldic verse as a heiti for ‘sword’ in general. It is an agent noun derived from the weak verb hneita ‘cut, wound’. — [8] hræfrakki (m.) ‘carrion-spear’: This variant is found only in C, while the other mss have the obscure forms ‘hafrakan’ (R, ) or ‘hafraka’ (A, B and the LaufE mss) (perhaps ‘sea-borne one’; see ÍO: hafrakan, hafraka). The C variant is supported by hræfrakki in GSúrs Lv 1/1V (Gísl 2), although in that stanza hræfrakki is a poetic term for ‘spear’ (see frakka f. ‘Frankish [spear]’, Þul Spjóts l. 7), which was most likely misinterpreted by the compiler of the present þula as a heiti for ‘sword’ (Falk 1914b, 52, 75; ÍF 6, 11 n. 4).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skj B = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1912-15b. Den norsk-islandske skjaldedigtning. B: Rettet tekst. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Villadsen & Christensen. Rpt. 1973. Copenhagen: Rosenkilde & Bagger.
  3. FSN = Rafn, Carl Christian, ed. 1829-30. Fornaldar sögur nordrlanda. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  4. SnE 1848-87 = Snorri Sturluson. 1848-87. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar: Edda Snorronis Sturlaei. Ed. Jón Sigurðsson et al. 3 vols. Copenhagen: Legatum Arnamagnaeanum. Rpt. Osnabrück: Zeller, 1966.
  5. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  6. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  7. AEW = Vries, Jan de. 1962. Altnordisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. 2nd rev. edn. Rpt. 1977. Leiden: Brill.
  8. Finnur Jónsson. 1926-8. Ordbog til de af samfund til udg. af gml. nord. litteratur udgivne Rímur samt til de af Dr. O. Jiriczek udgivne Bósarímur. SUGNL 51. Copenhagen: Jørgensen.
  9. NK = Neckel, Gustav and Hans Kuhn (1899), eds. 1983. Edda: Die Lieder des Codex Regius nebst verwandten Denkmälern. 2 vols. I: Text. 5th edn. Heidelberg: Winter.
  10. ÍO = Ásgeir Blöndal Magnússon. 1989. Íslensk orðsifjabók. Reykjavík: Orðabók Háskólans.
  11. ÍF 1 (parts 1 and 2) = Íslendingabók; Landnámabók. Ed. Jakob Benediktsson. 1968. Rpt. as one volume 1986.
  12. ÍF 2 = Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar. Ed. Sigurður Nordal. 1933.
  13. ÍF 6 = Vestfirðinga sǫgur. Ed. Björn K. Þórólfsson and Guðni Jónsson. 1943.
  14. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  15. Falk, Hjalmar. 1914b. Altnordische Waffenkunde. Videnskapsselskapets skrifter, II. Hist.-filos. kl. 1914, 6. Kristiania (Oslo): Dybwad.
  16. SnE 1931 = Snorri Sturluson. 1931. Edda Snorra Sturlusonar. Ed. Finnur Jónsson. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  17. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  18. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  19. Saxo 2005 = Friis-Jensen, Karsten, ed. 2005. Saxo Grammaticus: Gesta Danorum / Danmarkshistorien. Trans. Peter Zeeberg. 2 vols. Copenhagen: Det danske sprog- og litteraturselskab & Gads forlag.
  20. SnE 2005 = Snorri Sturluson. 2005. Edda: Prologue and Gylfaginning. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2nd edn. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  21. ÍF 8 = Vatnsdœla saga. Ed. Einar Ólafur Sveinsson. 1939.
  22. Fisher, Peter, and H. R. Ellis Davidson. 1979-80. Saxo Grammaticus: The History of the Danes, Books I-IX. 2 vols. I: Text. II: Commentary. Cambridge and Totowa, N.J.: D. S. Brewer and Rowman and Littlefield.
  23. ÍS = Bragi Halldórsson et al., eds. 1987. Íslendinga sögur og þættir. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Svart á hvítu.
  24. Kahle, Bernhard. 1903. ‘Altwestnordische Namenstudien’. IF 14, 133-224.
  25. ÍF 23-4 = Morkinskinna. Ed. Ármann Jakobsson and Þórður Ingi Guðjónsson. 2009.
  26. Internal references
  27. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Heimskringla (Hkr)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  28. Not published: do not cite (EgV)
  29. Not published: do not cite (LdnIV)
  30. Not published: do not cite (ÞórðV)
  31. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  32. 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Hrólfs saga kraka’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 539.
  33. Not published: do not cite (KormV)
  34. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Morkinskinna (Mork)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
  35. Not published: do not cite (GylfIII)
  36. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Sækonunga heiti 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 683.
  37. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 709.
  38. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 710.
  39. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Jǫtna heiti I 4’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 713.
  40. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Óðins nǫfn 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 748.
  41. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 885.
  42. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Øxna heiti 2’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 887.
  43. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Elds heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 921.
  44. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Orma heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 931.
  45. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Hesta heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 935.
  46. †Desmond Slay and Margaret Clunies Ross (eds) 2017, ‘Hrólfs saga kraka 10 (Anonymous Lausavísur, Lausavísa from Hrólfs saga kraka 1)’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry in fornaldarsögur. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 8. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 547.
  47. Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Haraldsdrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 263-4.
  48. Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 43’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 42-3.
  49. Not published: do not cite (GSúrs Lv 1V (Gísl 2))
  50. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Þorgrímsþula II’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 675.
  51. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Spjóts heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 816.
  52. Elena Gurevich 2017, ‘(Introduction to) Anonymous, Hjálms heiti’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 828.
  53. Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2012, ‘Halldórr ókristni, Eiríksflokkr 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 477.
  54. Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Kormákr Ǫgmundarson, Sigurðardrápa 7’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 285.
  55. Not published: do not cite ()
  56. Kari Ellen Gade 2009, ‘Laufás Edda (LaufE)’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols [check printed volume for citation].
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