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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gsind Hákdr 5I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 163.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
456

sókn ‘of the attack’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhǫttr (noun m.)sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhvattr (adj.)sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sókn (noun f.): attack, fight

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sókn ‘of the attack’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhǫttr (noun m.)sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhvattr (adj.)sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sókn (noun f.): attack, fight

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sókn ‘of the attack’

sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhǫttr (noun m.)sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sóknhvattr (adj.)sókn (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): attack, fight < sókn (noun f.): attack, fight

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hattar ‘hat’

hattr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): hat < sóknhǫttr (noun m.)

[1] ‑hattar: ‑hvattr F, ‑hittir Bb

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hattar ‘hat’

hattr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): hat < sóknhǫttr (noun m.)

[1] ‑hattar: ‑hvattr F, ‑hittir Bb

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

hattar ‘hat’

hattr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ar): hat < sóknhǫttr (noun m.)

[1] ‑hattar: ‑hvattr F, ‑hittir Bb

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

setti ‘placed’

setja (verb): place, set, establish

notes

[1, 2-3] setti … at því fljóði Ónars ‘placed … over that woman of Ónarr <giant> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð “land”)]’: For discussion of forms of the name Ónarr see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 84-5) and Note to Þul Dverga 3/6III. The noun fljóð means ‘woman given to a man’ (see Note to Þul Kvenna I 1/3III), but the few other earth-kennings involving Ónarr refer to earth as his daughter (Meissner 87; ÍF 26). It may be that the variation of base-word from ‘daughter’ to ‘wife’ reflects conflation with earth-kennings based on the idea of ‘Óðinn’s spouse/concubine’. The metaphor of the marriage of ruler to land occurs in other poetry of the late C10th and early C11th (e.g. Eyv Hál 12, Hfr Hákdr 3-6III, Edáð Banddr 3; cf. SnE 1998, I, 158). The language may be purely figurative and conventional (cf. Frank 2007, 177, 190), but it has been regarded as pointing to an ancient rite of hieros gamos ‘sacred marriage’ (Ström 1983; Steinsland 1986b; Steinsland 1991; Steinsland 1992), perhaps even to a revival of such a cult under Hákon góði or more especially under the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade; e.g. Åkerblom 1899a, 271-2). The exact region placed under Tryggvi’s protection is not specified in the stanza. The prose narrative may be correct in mentioning Vík (Viken, the area around Oslofjorden), but Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) suggests that the reference might be to the Danish lands subjugated by Hákon in his campaign. The mention of oak forests would fit best with the Danish islands or the Skåne coast (cf. Price 2000b, 32, map).

Close

svell ‘of the ice’

svell (noun n.; °; -): ice < svellrjóðr (noun m.)

[2] svell‑: ‘suol‑’ Flat

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

svell ‘of the ice’

svell (noun n.; °; -): ice < svellrjóðr (noun m.)

[2] svell‑: ‘suol‑’ Flat

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

rjóðr ‘the reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < svellrjóðr (noun m.)1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < svǫlrjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

sóknhattar svellrjóðr
‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the attack-hat → HELMET
the ice of the HELMET → SWORD
the reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

at ‘over’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] at: af Flat

notes

[1, 2-3] setti … at því fljóði Ónars ‘placed … over that woman of Ónarr <giant> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð “land”)]’: For discussion of forms of the name Ónarr see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 84-5) and Note to Þul Dverga 3/6III. The noun fljóð means ‘woman given to a man’ (see Note to Þul Kvenna I 1/3III), but the few other earth-kennings involving Ónarr refer to earth as his daughter (Meissner 87; ÍF 26). It may be that the variation of base-word from ‘daughter’ to ‘wife’ reflects conflation with earth-kennings based on the idea of ‘Óðinn’s spouse/concubine’. The metaphor of the marriage of ruler to land occurs in other poetry of the late C10th and early C11th (e.g. Eyv Hál 12, Hfr Hákdr 3-6III, Edáð Banddr 3; cf. SnE 1998, I, 158). The language may be purely figurative and conventional (cf. Frank 2007, 177, 190), but it has been regarded as pointing to an ancient rite of hieros gamos ‘sacred marriage’ (Ström 1983; Steinsland 1986b; Steinsland 1991; Steinsland 1992), perhaps even to a revival of such a cult under Hákon góði or more especially under the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade; e.g. Åkerblom 1899a, 271-2). The exact region placed under Tryggvi’s protection is not specified in the stanza. The prose narrative may be correct in mentioning Vík (Viken, the area around Oslofjorden), but Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) suggests that the reference might be to the Danish lands subjugated by Hákon in his campaign. The mention of oak forests would fit best with the Danish islands or the Skåne coast (cf. Price 2000b, 32, map).

Close

því ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

því fljóði Ónars,
‘that woman of Ónarr, ’
   = Jǫrð

that woman of Ónarr, → Jǫrð

notes

[1, 2-3] setti … at því fljóði Ónars ‘placed … over that woman of Ónarr <giant> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð “land”)]’: For discussion of forms of the name Ónarr see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 84-5) and Note to Þul Dverga 3/6III. The noun fljóð means ‘woman given to a man’ (see Note to Þul Kvenna I 1/3III), but the few other earth-kennings involving Ónarr refer to earth as his daughter (Meissner 87; ÍF 26). It may be that the variation of base-word from ‘daughter’ to ‘wife’ reflects conflation with earth-kennings based on the idea of ‘Óðinn’s spouse/concubine’. The metaphor of the marriage of ruler to land occurs in other poetry of the late C10th and early C11th (e.g. Eyv Hál 12, Hfr Hákdr 3-6III, Edáð Banddr 3; cf. SnE 1998, I, 158). The language may be purely figurative and conventional (cf. Frank 2007, 177, 190), but it has been regarded as pointing to an ancient rite of hieros gamos ‘sacred marriage’ (Ström 1983; Steinsland 1986b; Steinsland 1991; Steinsland 1992), perhaps even to a revival of such a cult under Hákon góði or more especially under the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade; e.g. Åkerblom 1899a, 271-2). The exact region placed under Tryggvi’s protection is not specified in the stanza. The prose narrative may be correct in mentioning Vík (Viken, the area around Oslofjorden), but Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) suggests that the reference might be to the Danish lands subjugated by Hákon in his campaign. The mention of oak forests would fit best with the Danish islands or the Skåne coast (cf. Price 2000b, 32, map).

Close

fljóði ‘woman’

fljóð (noun n.): woman

kennings

því fljóði Ónars,
‘that woman of Ónarr, ’
   = Jǫrð

that woman of Ónarr, → Jǫrð

notes

[1, 2-3] setti … at því fljóði Ónars ‘placed … over that woman of Ónarr <giant> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð “land”)]’: For discussion of forms of the name Ónarr see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 84-5) and Note to Þul Dverga 3/6III. The noun fljóð means ‘woman given to a man’ (see Note to Þul Kvenna I 1/3III), but the few other earth-kennings involving Ónarr refer to earth as his daughter (Meissner 87; ÍF 26). It may be that the variation of base-word from ‘daughter’ to ‘wife’ reflects conflation with earth-kennings based on the idea of ‘Óðinn’s spouse/concubine’. The metaphor of the marriage of ruler to land occurs in other poetry of the late C10th and early C11th (e.g. Eyv Hál 12, Hfr Hákdr 3-6III, Edáð Banddr 3; cf. SnE 1998, I, 158). The language may be purely figurative and conventional (cf. Frank 2007, 177, 190), but it has been regarded as pointing to an ancient rite of hieros gamos ‘sacred marriage’ (Ström 1983; Steinsland 1986b; Steinsland 1991; Steinsland 1992), perhaps even to a revival of such a cult under Hákon góði or more especially under the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade; e.g. Åkerblom 1899a, 271-2). The exact region placed under Tryggvi’s protection is not specified in the stanza. The prose narrative may be correct in mentioning Vík (Viken, the area around Oslofjorden), but Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) suggests that the reference might be to the Danish lands subjugated by Hákon in his campaign. The mention of oak forests would fit best with the Danish islands or the Skåne coast (cf. Price 2000b, 32, map).

Close

Ónars ‘of Ónarr’

Ónarr (noun m.): Ónarr

[3] Ónars: einars J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb

kennings

því fljóði Ónars,
‘that woman of Ónarr, ’
   = Jǫrð

that woman of Ónarr, → Jǫrð

notes

[1, 2-3] setti … at því fljóði Ónars ‘placed … over that woman of Ónarr <giant> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð “land”)]’: For discussion of forms of the name Ónarr see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 84-5) and Note to Þul Dverga 3/6III. The noun fljóð means ‘woman given to a man’ (see Note to Þul Kvenna I 1/3III), but the few other earth-kennings involving Ónarr refer to earth as his daughter (Meissner 87; ÍF 26). It may be that the variation of base-word from ‘daughter’ to ‘wife’ reflects conflation with earth-kennings based on the idea of ‘Óðinn’s spouse/concubine’. The metaphor of the marriage of ruler to land occurs in other poetry of the late C10th and early C11th (e.g. Eyv Hál 12, Hfr Hákdr 3-6III, Edáð Banddr 3; cf. SnE 1998, I, 158). The language may be purely figurative and conventional (cf. Frank 2007, 177, 190), but it has been regarded as pointing to an ancient rite of hieros gamos ‘sacred marriage’ (Ström 1983; Steinsland 1986b; Steinsland 1991; Steinsland 1992), perhaps even to a revival of such a cult under Hákon góði or more especially under the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade; e.g. Åkerblom 1899a, 271-2). The exact region placed under Tryggvi’s protection is not specified in the stanza. The prose narrative may be correct in mentioning Vík (Viken, the area around Oslofjorden), but Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) suggests that the reference might be to the Danish lands subjugated by Hákon in his campaign. The mention of oak forests would fit best with the Danish islands or the Skåne coast (cf. Price 2000b, 32, map).

Close

eiki ‘with oak’

eiki (noun n.): oak, oak ship

[3] eiki: ‘eki’ 61, ekki Flat

Close

grónu ‘grown’

2. gróa (verb): grow

[3] grónu: grœnu J2ˣ, Bb, seima 61, grœnum Flat

Close

geð ‘morale’

geð (noun n.): mind < geðbœtir (noun m.)geð (noun n.): mind < geðboði (noun m.)geð (noun n.): mind < geðbœtir (noun m.)

[4] geð‑: sið‑ Bb

kennings

hraustan geðbœti
‘the valiant morale-improver ’
   = RULER = Tryggvi

the valiant morale-improver → RULER = Tryggvi

notes

[4] geðbœti ‘morale-improver [RULER = Tryggvi]’: Tryggvi Óláfsson (see Context). The kenning may involve word-play on his name, cf. tryggr ‘trustworthy’ (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991).

Close

bœti ‘improver’

bœtir (noun m.): amender < geðbœtir (noun m.)bœtir (noun m.): amender < siðbœtir (noun m.)

[4] ‑bœti: ‑boði J1ˣ, bœtis Flat

kennings

hraustan geðbœti
‘the valiant morale-improver ’
   = RULER = Tryggvi

the valiant morale-improver → RULER = Tryggvi

notes

[4] geðbœti ‘morale-improver [RULER = Tryggvi]’: Tryggvi Óláfsson (see Context). The kenning may involve word-play on his name, cf. tryggr ‘trustworthy’ (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991).

Close

hraustan ‘the valiant’

hraustr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): strong, valiant

[4] hraustan: hraustum 61

kennings

hraustan geðbœti
‘the valiant morale-improver ’
   = RULER = Tryggvi

the valiant morale-improver → RULER = Tryggvi
Close

þann ‘that man’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[5, 7] þann … -brigðandi ‘that man … cleaver …’: Þann ‘that man, that one’ is m. acc. sg., referring back to geðbœti ‘morale-improver’ (l. 4), while brigðandi ‘cleaver’, base-word to the warrior-kenning, is m. nom. sg., elaborating on es ‘who’, the subject of kom ‘brought’. Both refer to Tryggvi.

Close

áðr ‘previously’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

notes

[5] áðr ‘previously’: Finnur Jónsson (1884, 85) and Kock (NN §1931) proposed emendation to ár ‘before’, to supply hending, but áðr : Írum do rhyme (cf. Kuhn 1983, 79).

Close

Írum ‘the Irish’

írar (noun m.): Irishmen

Close

íð ‘’

íð (noun f.): task < iðvandr (adj.): diligent

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi
Close

vandr ‘a diligent’

vandr (adj.): difficult < iðvandr (adj.): diligent

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi
Close

of ‘had’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[6] of (‘vm’): ok Bb, er Flat

Close

skíðum ‘on the skis’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

[6] skíðum: so F, 61, Bb, Flat, skeiðum Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

skíðum svanvangs.
‘on the skis of the swan-plain.’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain. → SEA
on the skis of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

sal ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salbrigðandi (noun m.)1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < (non-lexical) (unclassified)

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi
Close

sal ‘of the hall’

1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < salbrigðandi (noun m.)1. salr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; dat. sǫlum): hall < (non-lexical) (unclassified)

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi
Close

sveigðisk ‘’

sveigja (verb): bend

Close

brigðandi ‘cleaver’

brigðandi (noun m.): [cleaver] < salbrigðandi (noun m.)

[7] ‑brigðandi: so all others, ‑brygðandi Kˣ

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi

notes

[5, 7] þann … -brigðandi ‘that man … cleaver …’: Þann ‘that man, that one’ is m. acc. sg., referring back to geðbœti ‘morale-improver’ (l. 4), while brigðandi ‘cleaver’, base-word to the warrior-kenning, is m. nom. sg., elaborating on es ‘who’, the subject of kom ‘brought’. Both refer to Tryggvi.

Close

Sveigðis ‘of Sveigðir’

Sveigðir (noun m.): Sveigðir

[7] Sveigðis: sveigðisk Flat

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi

notes

[7] Sveigðis ‘of Sveigðir <= Óðinn>’: The form and application of this rare proper name are discussed by Konráð Gíslason (1881, 200-8).

Close

Sveigðis ‘of Sveigðir’

Sveigðir (noun m.): Sveigðir

[7] Sveigðis: sveigðisk Flat

kennings

íðvandr Sveigðis salbrigðandi,
‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’
   = WARRIOR = Tryggvi

the hall of Sveigðir, → SHIELD
a diligent cleaver of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Tryggvi

notes

[7] Sveigðis ‘of Sveigðir <= Óðinn>’: The form and application of this rare proper name are discussed by Konráð Gíslason (1881, 200-8).

Close

svan ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanvangr (noun m.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanfang (noun n.)

kennings

skíðum svanvangs.
‘on the skis of the swan-plain.’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain. → SEA
on the skis of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

svan ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanvangr (noun m.)svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan < svanfang (noun n.)

kennings

skíðum svanvangs.
‘on the skis of the swan-plain.’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain. → SEA
on the skis of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < svanvangr (noun m.)

[8] ‑vangs: ‑fangs J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, Flat

kennings

skíðum svanvangs.
‘on the skis of the swan-plain.’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain. → SEA
on the skis of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

vangs ‘plain’

1. vangr (noun m.): field, plain < svanvangr (noun m.)

[8] ‑vangs: ‑fangs J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, Flat

kennings

skíðum svanvangs.
‘on the skis of the swan-plain.’
   = SHIPS

the swan-plain. → SEA
on the skis of the SEA → SHIPS
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

King Tryggvi Óláfsson, Hákon’s nephew, returns from raiding around Ireland and Scotland. During the spring Hákon places him in charge of Vík (Viken) to ward off enemy action and consolidate the hold over the Danish lands from which Hákon had exacted tribute.

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