skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Gsind Hákdr 5I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Guthormr sindri, Hákonardrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 163.

Guthormr sindriHákonardrápa
456

Ok sóknhattar setti
svellrjóðr at því fljóði
Ónars eiki grónu
austr geðbœti hraustan,
þann, es áðr frá Írum
íðvandr of kom skíðum
salbrigðandi Sveigðis
svanvangs liði þangat.

Ok {{{sóknhattar} svell}rjóðr} setti {hraustan geðbœti} austr at {því fljóði Ónars}, grónu eiki, þann, {íðvandr {Sveigðis sal}brigðandi}, es of kom áðr liði þangat frá Írum {skíðum {svanvangs}}.

And {the reddener {of the ice {of the attack-hat}}} [(lit. ‘ice-reddener of the attack-hat’) HELMET > SWORD > WARRIOR = Hákon] placed {the valiant morale-improver} [RULER = Tryggvi] in the east over {that woman of Ónarr <giant>} [= Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘land’)], grown with oak, that man, {a diligent cleaver {of the hall of Sveigðir <= Óðinn>}} [(lit. ‘diligent hall-cleaver of Sveigðir’) SHIELD > WARRIOR = Tryggvi], who had previously brought his following there from the Irish {on the skis {of the swan-plain}} [SEA > SHIPS].

Mss: (87v), F(15rb), J1ˣ(52r), J2ˣ(49v) (Hkr); 61(4rb-va), Bb(5vb), Flat(7rb) (ÓT)

Readings: [1] ‑hattar: ‑hvattr F, ‑hittir Bb    [2] svell‑: ‘suol‑’ Flat;    at: af Flat    [3] Ónars: einars J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb;    eiki: ‘eki’ 61, ekki Flat;    grónu: grœnu J2ˣ, Bb, seima 61, grœnum Flat    [4] austr: austrs Flat;    geð‑: sið‑ Bb;    ‑bœti: ‑boði J1ˣ, bœtis Flat;    hraustan: hraustum 61    [6] of (‘vm’): ok Bb, er Flat;    skíðum: so F, 61, Bb, Flat, skeiðum Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ    [7] ‑brigðandi: so all others, ‑brygðandi Kˣ;    Sveigðis: sveigðisk Flat    [8] ‑vangs: ‑fangs J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, Bb, Flat

Editions: Skj AI, 62-3, Skj BI, 55-6, Skald I, 34, NN §§1931, 2743; Hkr 1893-1901, I, 179, IV, 48, ÍF 26, 161, Hkr 1991, I, 102 (HákGóð ch. 9), F 1871, 69; Fms 1, 29, Fms 12, 27, ÓT 1958-2000, I, 28 (ch. 18), Flat 1860-8, I, 53 .

Context: King Tryggvi Óláfsson, Hákon’s nephew, returns from raiding around Ireland and Scotland. During the spring Hákon places him in charge of Vík (Viken) to ward off enemy action and consolidate the hold over the Danish lands from which Hákon had exacted tribute.

Notes: [1, 2-3] setti … at því fljóði Ónars ‘placed … over that woman of Ónarr <giant> [= Jǫrð (jǫrð “land”)]’: For discussion of forms of the name Ónarr see Finnur Jónsson (1884, 84-5) and Note to Þul Dverga 3/6III. The noun fljóð means ‘woman given to a man’ (see Note to Þul Kvenna I 1/3III), but the few other earth-kennings involving Ónarr refer to earth as his daughter (Meissner 87; ÍF 26). It may be that the variation of base-word from ‘daughter’ to ‘wife’ reflects conflation with earth-kennings based on the idea of ‘Óðinn’s spouse/concubine’. The metaphor of the marriage of ruler to land occurs in other poetry of the late C10th and early C11th (e.g. Eyv Hál 12, Hfr Hákdr 3-6III, Edáð Banddr 3; cf. SnE 1998, I, 158). The language may be purely figurative and conventional (cf. Frank 2007, 177, 190), but it has been regarded as pointing to an ancient rite of hieros gamos ‘sacred marriage’ (Ström 1983; Steinsland 1986b; Steinsland 1991; Steinsland 1992), perhaps even to a revival of such a cult under Hákon góði or more especially under the jarls of Hlaðir (Lade; e.g. Åkerblom 1899a, 271-2). The exact region placed under Tryggvi’s protection is not specified in the stanza. The prose narrative may be correct in mentioning Vík (Viken, the area around Oslofjorden), but Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) suggests that the reference might be to the Danish lands subjugated by Hákon in his campaign. The mention of oak forests would fit best with the Danish islands or the Skåne coast (cf. Price 2000b, 32, map). — [4] geðbœti ‘morale-improver [RULER = Tryggvi]’: Tryggvi Óláfsson (see Context). The kenning may involve word-play on his name, cf. tryggr ‘trustworthy’ (cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991). — [5, 7] þann … -brigðandi ‘that man … cleaver …’: Þann ‘that man, that one’ is m. acc. sg., referring back to geðbœti ‘morale-improver’ (l. 4), while brigðandi ‘cleaver’, base-word to the warrior-kenning, is m. nom. sg., elaborating on es ‘who’, the subject of kom ‘brought’. Both refer to Tryggvi. — [5] áðr ‘previously’: Finnur Jónsson (1884, 85) and Kock (NN §1931) proposed emendation to ár ‘before’, to supply hending, but áðr : Írum do rhyme (cf. Kuhn 1983, 79). — [7] Sveigðis ‘of Sveigðir <= Óðinn>’: The form and application of this rare proper name are discussed by Konráð Gíslason (1881, 200-8).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Fms = Sveinbjörn Egilsson et al., eds. 1825-37. Fornmanna sögur eptir gömlum handritum útgefnar að tilhlutun hins norræna fornfræða fèlags. 12 vols. Copenhagen: Popp.
  3. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  5. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  6. Flat 1860-8 = Gudbrand Vigfusson [Guðbrandur Vigfússon] and C. R. Unger, eds. 1860-8. Flateyjarbók. En samling af norske konge-sagaer med indskudte mindre fortællinger om begivenheder i og udenfor Norge samt annaler. 3 vols. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  7. Kuhn, Hans (1899). 1983. Das Dróttkvætt. Heidelberg: Winter.
  8. ÍF 26-8 = Heimskringla. Ed. Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson. 1941-51.
  9. Hkr 1893-1901 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1893-1901. Heimskringla: Nóregs konunga sǫgur af Snorri Sturluson. 4 vols. SUGNL 23. Copenhagen: Møller.
  10. Hkr 1991 = Bergljót S. Kristjánsdóttir et al., eds. 1991. Heimskringla. 3 vols. Reykjavík: Mál og menning.
  11. F 1871 = Unger, C. R., ed. 1871. Fríssbók: Codex Frisianus. En samling af norske konge-sagaer. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  12. SnE 1998 = Snorri Sturluson. 1998. Edda: Skáldskaparmál. Ed. Anthony Faulkes. 2 vols. University College London: Viking Society for Northern Research.
  13. ÓT 1958-2000 = Ólafur Halldórsson, ed. 1958-2000. Saga Óláfs Tryggvasonar en mesta. 3 vols. EA A 1-3. Copenhagen: Munksgaard (Reitzel).
  14. Finnur Jónsson. 1884. Kritiske studier over en del af de ældste norske og islandske skjaldekvad. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
  15. Frank, Roberta. 2007. ‘The Lay of the Land in Skaldic Praise Poetry’. In Glosecki 2007, 175-96.
  16. Steinsland, Gro. 1986b. ‘Giants as Recipients of Cult in the Viking Age?’. In Steinsland 1986a, 212-22.
  17. Steinsland, Gro. 1991. Det hellige bryllup og norrøn kongeideologi. En analyse av hierogami-myten i Skírnismál, Ynglingatal, Háleygjatal og Hyndluljóð. Oslo: Solum.
  18. Steinsland, Gro. 1992. ‘Die mythologische Grundlage für die nordische Königsideologie’. In Beck et al. 1992, 736-51.
  19. Ström, Folke. 1983. ‘Hieros gamos-motivet i Hallfreðr Óttarssons Hákonardrápa och den nordnorska jarlavärdigheten’. ANF 98, 67-79.
  20. Åkerblom, Axel. 1899a. ‘Bidrag til tolkningen af skaldekvad’. ANF 15, 269-73.
  21. Konráð Gíslason. 1881. ‘Nogle bemærkninger angående Ynglingatal’. ÅNOH, 185-251.
  22. Price, Neil. 2000b. ‘The Scandinavian Landscape: People and Environment’. In Fitzhugh et al. 2000, 31-41.
  23. Internal references
  24. Not published: do not cite (HákGóðII)
  25. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Kvenna heiti 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 772.
  26. Elena Gurevich (ed.) 2017, ‘Anonymous Þulur, Dverga heiti 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 697.
  27. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyjólfr dáðaskáld, Bandadrápa 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 460.
  28. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Háleygjatal 12’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 211.
  29. Kate Heslop (ed.) 2017, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Hákonardrápa 3’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 218.
Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.