skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

Eskál Vell 26I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 26’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 315.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
252627

við ‘at the time’

2. við (prep.): with, against

notes

[1] við frost ‘at the time of the frost’: (a) The phrase is taken here (as in Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 159; NN §406; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991) with the main clause, since it seems unlikely that Hákon jarl would have taken his fleet to Denmark at the beginning of winter, but conceivable that Haraldr charged him with defending the Danevirke at that time. Moreover in Hkr (ÍF 26, 254) Snorri reports that the jarl came to Denmark on King Haraldr’s invitation in the spring, which need not be a misreading of the stanza on Snorri’s part, as assumed in ÍF 26. (b) Other eds have related the phrase to the subordinate clause (ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); however, that would produce abnormal word order.

Close

frost ‘of the frost’

frost (noun n.): frost

[1] frost: fóstr Bb

notes

[1] við frost ‘at the time of the frost’: (a) The phrase is taken here (as in Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 159; NN §406; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991) with the main clause, since it seems unlikely that Hákon jarl would have taken his fleet to Denmark at the beginning of winter, but conceivable that Haraldr charged him with defending the Danevirke at that time. Moreover in Hkr (ÍF 26, 254) Snorri reports that the jarl came to Denmark on King Haraldr’s invitation in the spring, which need not be a misreading of the stanza on Snorri’s part, as assumed in ÍF 26. (b) Other eds have related the phrase to the subordinate clause (ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B); however, that would produce abnormal word order.

Close

at ‘to’

5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

notes

[1] at ‘to’: Normally the inf. is not preceded by at in a construction with vilja ‘to desire’. Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 157) analyses it as a deictic particle, hence ‘(to put the jarl to the test) at (it)’, but this is unlikely since the particle is not stressed.

Close

‘’

fé (noun n.; °fjár/féar; -): cattle, money < fémildr (adj.): generousfé (noun n.; °fjár/féar; -): cattle, money < fémildr (adj.): generous

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn
Close

mildr ‘the generous’

mildr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): mild, gentle, gracious, generous < fémildr (adj.): generous

[2] ‑mildr: ‑mildum F

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn
Close

konungr ‘king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn
Close

merkr ‘’

Close

myrk ‘of the dark’

2. myrkr (adj.; °-an/-jan/-van; compar. -(v)ari/-ri, superl. -(v)astr): dark, murky < myrkmǫrk (noun f.)

[3] myrk‑: merkr 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

myrk ‘of the dark’

2. myrkr (adj.; °-an/-jan/-van; compar. -(v)ari/-ri, superl. -(v)astr): dark, murky < myrkmǫrk (noun f.)

[3] myrk‑: merkr 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

hlóðynar ‘’

Close

lóðynjar ‘’

Close

follðynjar ‘’

Close

folðynjar ‘’

Close

Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’

Hlǫðyn (noun f.): Hlóðyn, Hlǫðyn

[3] Hlóðynjar: so 61, 53, ‘folðyniar’ Kˣ, J2ˣ, ‘follðyniar’ F, ‘loðyniar’ J1ˣ, ‘hloðynar’ 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’: Hlóðyn (or Hlǫðyn) is attested as a name of the goddess Jǫrð (LP: Hlǫðyn) and as a heiti for ‘earth’ in Þul Jarðar 1/2III (see Note) and in Vsp 56/2 and VSt Erf 2/4III. Finnur Jónsson conjectured Hlǫðvinjar in his eds (Hkr 1893-1901, I and Skj B), but this is not supported by any ms., nor by metrical considerations (contra Olsen 1962a, 47 n. 1). This edn follows the majority of others in choosing Hlóðynjar, found in mss 61 and 53. — [3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’

Hlǫðyn (noun f.): Hlóðyn, Hlǫðyn

[3] Hlóðynjar: so 61, 53, ‘folðyniar’ Kˣ, J2ˣ, ‘follðyniar’ F, ‘loðyniar’ J1ˣ, ‘hloðynar’ 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’: Hlóðyn (or Hlǫðyn) is attested as a name of the goddess Jǫrð (LP: Hlǫðyn) and as a heiti for ‘earth’ in Þul Jarðar 1/2III (see Note) and in Vsp 56/2 and VSt Erf 2/4III. Finnur Jónsson conjectured Hlǫðvinjar in his eds (Hkr 1893-1901, I and Skj B), but this is not supported by any ms., nor by metrical considerations (contra Olsen 1962a, 47 n. 1). This edn follows the majority of others in choosing Hlóðynjar, found in mss 61 and 53. — [3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’

Hlǫðyn (noun f.): Hlóðyn, Hlǫðyn

[3] Hlóðynjar: so 61, 53, ‘folðyniar’ Kˣ, J2ˣ, ‘follðyniar’ F, ‘loðyniar’ J1ˣ, ‘hloðynar’ 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’: Hlóðyn (or Hlǫðyn) is attested as a name of the goddess Jǫrð (LP: Hlǫðyn) and as a heiti for ‘earth’ in Þul Jarðar 1/2III (see Note) and in Vsp 56/2 and VSt Erf 2/4III. Finnur Jónsson conjectured Hlǫðvinjar in his eds (Hkr 1893-1901, I and Skj B), but this is not supported by any ms., nor by metrical considerations (contra Olsen 1962a, 47 n. 1). This edn follows the majority of others in choosing Hlóðynjar, found in mss 61 and 53. — [3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’

Hlǫðyn (noun f.): Hlóðyn, Hlǫðyn

[3] Hlóðynjar: so 61, 53, ‘folðyniar’ Kˣ, J2ˣ, ‘follðyniar’ F, ‘loðyniar’ J1ˣ, ‘hloðynar’ 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’)’: Hlóðyn (or Hlǫðyn) is attested as a name of the goddess Jǫrð (LP: Hlǫðyn) and as a heiti for ‘earth’ in Þul Jarðar 1/2III (see Note) and in Vsp 56/2 and VSt Erf 2/4III. Finnur Jónsson conjectured Hlǫðvinjar in his eds (Hkr 1893-1901, I and Skj B), but this is not supported by any ms., nor by metrical considerations (contra Olsen 1962a, 47 n. 1). This edn follows the majority of others in choosing Hlóðynjar, found in mss 61 and 53. — [3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

markar ‘forest’

2. mǫrk (noun f.; °merkr; merkr): forest < myrkmǫrk (noun f.)2. mǫrk (noun f.; °merkr; merkr): forest < merkrmǫrk (noun f.)

[3] markar: serkjar 53, 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

markar ‘forest’

2. mǫrk (noun f.; °merkr; merkr): forest < myrkmǫrk (noun f.)2. mǫrk (noun f.; °merkr; merkr): forest < merkrmǫrk (noun f.)

[3] markar: serkjar 53, 54, Bb

kennings

fémildr konungr Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar
‘the generous king of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest ’
   = DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest → JUTLAND
the generous king of the JUTLAND → DANISH KING = Haraldr blátǫnn

notes

[3] Hlóðynjar myrkmarkar ‘of the Hlóðyn = Jǫrð (jǫrð ‘earth’) of the dark forest <= Myrkviðr> [JUTLAND]’: Except for Kock (NN §406) all eds analyse myrk- … ‑markar as tmesis (see Reichardt 1928, 9, 93 n. 20, 207-8). The cpd appears to refer to the Myrkviðr ‘Dark Forest’ that lies between Jutland and Holstein (Fms 1, 111; ÓT 1958-2000, I, 123), and if this is correct its ‘earth’ is Jutland. However, the numerous instances of the ON Myrkviðr refer to forests at various borders (Eggers 2002, 460-1), and the cpd here could refer to any wooded country (Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 174). Some interpreters have accordingly assumed it refers to Norway and conjoined it to morðalfs ‘battle-elf [WARRIOR]’ or simply to alfs ‘elf’ as a kenning for Hákon jarl (Fms 12; NN §406; Ohlmarks 1958, 381-2); Konráð Gíslason (1895-7, I, 159) rejects this.

Close

morð ‘the battle’

1. morð (noun n.; °-s; -): killing, battle < morðalfr (noun m.)

kennings

morðalfs
‘the battle-elf ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the battle-elf → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl
Close

alfs ‘elf’

alfr (noun m.; °; -ar): elf < morðalfr (noun m.)

kennings

morðalfs
‘the battle-elf ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the battle-elf → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl
Close

norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

Close

val ‘of the slain’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valserkr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valserkr (noun m.)

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

val ‘of the slain’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valserkr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valserkr (noun m.)

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

val ‘of the slain’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valserkr (noun m.)1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valserkr (noun m.)

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

serkjar ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt < valserkr (noun m.)

[5] ‑serkjar: so J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, ‑serkja Kˣ, F, J2ˣ

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

serkjar ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt < valserkr (noun m.)

[5] ‑serkjar: so J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, ‑serkja Kˣ, F, J2ˣ

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

serkjar ‘of the shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt < valserkr (noun m.)

[5] ‑serkjar: so J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, ‑serkja Kˣ, F, J2ˣ

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

virki ‘the rampart’

virki (noun n.; °-s; -): stronghold

notes

[5] virki ‘the rampart’: This is a reference to the Danevirke, the Danes’ array of defensive structures in southern Jutland (see ÍF 26, 257 and n.).

Close

veðr ‘of the weather’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhirðir (noun m.)2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhirðir (noun m.)2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrharðr (adj.)

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

veðr ‘of the weather’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhirðir (noun m.)2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrhirðir (noun m.)2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm < veðrharðr (adj.)

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155).

Close

hirði ‘keeper’

hirðir (noun m.; °hirðis/hirðirs, dat. & acc. hirði; hirðar/hirðir): guardian, keeper, pastor < veðrhirðir (noun m.)

[6] ‑hirði: so J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, ‑hirðir Kˣ, F, ‑harðr J2ˣ

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155). — [6] -hirði ‘keeper’: Mss and F give both -hirðir and gramr ‘ruler’ in the nom. form. Because only one of these words can be the subject of the sentence, this edn follows the majority of other mss, which have the nom. gramr and the acc. -hirði.

Close

hirði ‘keeper’

hirðir (noun m.; °hirðis/hirðirs, dat. & acc. hirði; hirðar/hirðir): guardian, keeper, pastor < veðrhirðir (noun m.)

[6] ‑hirði: so J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb, ‑hirðir Kˣ, F, ‑harðr J2ˣ

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[5, 6] valserkjar veðrhirði ‘the keeper of the weather of the shirt of the slain [(lit. ‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’) MAIL-SHIRT > BATTLE > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: (a) Normally hirðir ‘keeper, protector, owner’ appears in connection with weapons, precious objects or the like, rather than with battle (see LP: 1. hirðir; cf. also Fritzner: hirða). For this reason most interpreters (Fms 12; Finnur Jónsson 1891a, 176; Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 160; LP: veðrhirði) reverse the order of the kennings that form the determinant: hirði serkjar valveðrs ‘keeper of the shirt of the slain-weather [BATTLE > MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIOR]’. (b) This edn (with Vell 1865, 73; ÓT 1892, 378; Hkr 1991) leaves the kenning unaltered, understanding hirðir in the sense of nærir ‘nourisher’, cf. Glúmr Gráf 6/3 nærir naddskúrar ‘nourisher of the point-shower [BATTLE > WARRIOR]’. (c) In ÍF 26 veðr is rendered as a ‘ram’ charging the mail-shirt (valserkjar ‘of the shirt of the slain’), and this results in a sword-kenning which is conjoined to hirðir ‘owner’ to form a warrior-kenning ‘owner of the sword’. But this is unlikely because an animal name used as the base-word of a sword-kenning is always that of a harmful, aggressive animal such as a wolf, hound or bear (Meissner 155). — [6] -hirði ‘keeper’: Mss and F give both -hirðir and gramr ‘ruler’ in the nom. form. Because only one of these words can be the subject of the sentence, this edn follows the majority of other mss, which have the nom. gramr and the acc. -hirði.

Close

stirðan ‘the unbending’

stirðr (adj.): stiff

kennings

stirðan valserkjar veðrhirði
‘weather-keeper of the slain-shirt’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the shirt of the slain → MAIL-SHIRT
the weather of the MAIL-SHIRT → BATTLE
the unbending keeper of the BATTLE → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl
Close

hlym ‘of the din’

hlymr (noun m.): din < hlymnjǫrðr (noun m.)hlymr (noun m.): din

[7] hlym‑: hlunn‑ 61, 54, Bb, ‘hlid‑’ 53

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hlym ‘of the din’

hlymr (noun m.): din < hlymnjǫrðr (noun m.)hlymr (noun m.): din

[7] hlym‑: hlunn‑ 61, 54, Bb, ‘hlid‑’ 53

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

morðum ‘’

Close

Njǫrðum ‘the Nirðir’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr < hlymnjǫrðr (noun m.)Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr

[7] Njǫrðum: morðum 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hurða ‘of the doors’

hurð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): door

[7] hurða: hǫrða F, hurðar J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hurða ‘of the doors’

hurð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): door

[7] hurða: hǫrða F, hurðar J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

hurða ‘of the doors’

hurð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): door

[7] hurða: hǫrða F, hurðar J1ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS
Close

Hag ‘of Hag’

(non-lexical) < Hagbarði (noun m.)(non-lexical) < Hagvarði (noun m.)(non-lexical) < Hagbrati (noun m.)

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[8] Hagbarða ‘of Hagbarði <legendary hero>’: The name is normally an a-stem, Hagbarðr, in which case its ending in -a here would make it a gen. pl. This edn therefore follows most others in assuming Hagbarða to be gen. sg. of the nom. Hagbarði, an n‑stem.

Close

Hag ‘of Hag’

(non-lexical) < Hagbarði (noun m.)(non-lexical) < Hagvarði (noun m.)(non-lexical) < Hagbrati (noun m.)

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[8] Hagbarða ‘of Hagbarði <legendary hero>’: The name is normally an a-stem, Hagbarðr, in which case its ending in -a here would make it a gen. pl. This edn therefore follows most others in assuming Hagbarða to be gen. sg. of the nom. Hagbarði, an n‑stem.

Close

Hag ‘of Hag’

(non-lexical) < Hagbarði (noun m.)(non-lexical) < Hagvarði (noun m.)(non-lexical) < Hagbrati (noun m.)

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[8] Hagbarða ‘of Hagbarði <legendary hero>’: The name is normally an a-stem, Hagbarðr, in which case its ending in -a here would make it a gen. pl. This edn therefore follows most others in assuming Hagbarða to be gen. sg. of the nom. Hagbarði, an n‑stem.

Close

brata ‘’

Close

barða ‘barði’

(non-lexical) < Hagbarði (noun m.)

[8] ‑barða: ‘‑brata’ J1ˣ, ‑varða Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[8] Hagbarða ‘of Hagbarði <legendary hero>’: The name is normally an a-stem, Hagbarðr, in which case its ending in -a here would make it a gen. pl. This edn therefore follows most others in assuming Hagbarða to be gen. sg. of the nom. Hagbarði, an n‑stem.

Close

barða ‘barði’

(non-lexical) < Hagbarði (noun m.)

[8] ‑barða: ‘‑brata’ J1ˣ, ‑varða Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[8] Hagbarða ‘of Hagbarði <legendary hero>’: The name is normally an a-stem, Hagbarðr, in which case its ending in -a here would make it a gen. pl. This edn therefore follows most others in assuming Hagbarða to be gen. sg. of the nom. Hagbarði, an n‑stem.

Close

barða ‘barði’

(non-lexical) < Hagbarði (noun m.)

[8] ‑barða: ‘‑brata’ J1ˣ, ‑varða Bb

kennings

Hagbarða hurða hlym-Njǫrðum.
‘din-Nirðir of the doors of Hagbarði’
   = WARRIORS

the doors of Hagbarði. → SHIELDS
the din of SHIELDS → BATTLE
the Nirðir of the BATTLE → WARRIORS

notes

[8] Hagbarða ‘of Hagbarði <legendary hero>’: The name is normally an a-stem, Hagbarðr, in which case its ending in -a here would make it a gen. pl. This edn therefore follows most others in assuming Hagbarða to be gen. sg. of the nom. Hagbarði, an n‑stem.

Close

gramr ‘the ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

[8] gramr: gram 53, Bb

Close

varða ‘to defend’

2. varða (verb): defend

[8] varða: varði Bb

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

See st. 25.

This and the following stanzas relate to an armed conflict between the German Emperor Otto II and the Danish king Haraldr blátǫnn. The year following the death of Otto I (973), Haraldr advanced into Holstein, whereupon Otto II conquered the Danevirke and defeated him. Various legends developed in Scandinavia surrounding this event, all of which report that Hákon jarl fought alongside Haraldr (on the legends’ development see Ussing 1928; on the portrayal of the event in Old Icelandic literature see Marold 2001a, 85-92).

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.