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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Liðs 9I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Liðsmannaflokkr 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1027.

Anonymous PoemsLiðsmannaflokkr
8910

Hvern ‘Every’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[1] Hvern: hver 20dˣ

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horna ‘of drinking horns’

horn (noun n.; °-s; -): horn

kennings

Hlǫkk horna
‘the Hlǫkk of drinking horns ’
   = WOMAN

the Hlǫkk of drinking horns → WOMAN
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Hlǫkk ‘the Hlǫkk’

2. Hlǫkk (noun f.): Hlǫkk

kennings

Hlǫkk horna
‘the Hlǫkk of drinking horns ’
   = WOMAN

the Hlǫkk of drinking horns → WOMAN
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Tempsar ‘of the Thames’

Temps (noun f.): [Thames]

[2] Tempsar: ‘Tempár’ 20dˣ

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skalat ‘must not’

skulu (verb): shall, should, must

[3] skalat: skal DG8

notes

[3] má Hanga skalat hungra ‘the seagull of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN/EAGLE] must not go hungry’: is in the acc. case since the verb hungra ‘hunger, go hungry’ is impersonal.

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Hanga ‘of Hangi’

hangi (noun m.; °-a): hanged one

kennings

má Hanga
‘the seagull of Hangi ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the seagull of Hangi → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3] má Hanga skalat hungra ‘the seagull of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN/EAGLE] must not go hungry’: is in the acc. case since the verb hungra ‘hunger, go hungry’ is impersonal.

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‘the seagull’

már (noun m.): gull

[3] má: ‘mæy’ DG8

kennings

má Hanga
‘the seagull of Hangi ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the seagull of Hangi → RAVEN/EAGLE

notes

[3] má Hanga skalat hungra ‘the seagull of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN/EAGLE] must not go hungry’: is in the acc. case since the verb hungra ‘hunger, go hungry’ is impersonal.

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hungra ‘go hungry’

hungra (verb): be hungry

notes

[3] má Hanga skalat hungra ‘the seagull of Hangi <= Óðinn> [RAVEN/EAGLE] must not go hungry’: is in the acc. case since the verb hungra ‘hunger, go hungry’ is impersonal.

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hjalm ‘the helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet < hjalmskóð (noun n.)

[4] hjalm‑: hræ JÓ, 20dˣ, 873ˣ, 41ˣ

kennings

hjalmskóð
‘the helmet-destroyers ’
   = SWORDS

the helmet-destroyers → SWORDS
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skóð ‘destroyers’

2. skóð (noun n.): harmer, scathe < hjalmskóð (noun n.)

kennings

hjalmskóð
‘the helmet-destroyers ’
   = SWORDS

the helmet-destroyers → SWORDS
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roðin ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[4] roðin: lituð JÓ, 20dˣ, 873ˣ, 41ˣ

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blóði ‘with blood’

blóð (noun n.; °-s): blood

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Rýðr ‘redden’

rjóða (verb): to redden

notes

[All]: In Knýtl, sts 9/1-4 and 8/5-8 form a single stanza.

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eigi ‘does not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

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‘That’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

Sá sveigir gunnborðs,
‘That brandisher of the battle-plank ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-plank → SHIELD
That brandisher of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
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sveigir ‘brandisher’

sveigir (noun m.): brandisher

kennings

Sá sveigir gunnborðs,
‘That brandisher of the battle-plank ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-plank → SHIELD
That brandisher of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
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sára ‘of wounds’

2. sár (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

kennings

lauk sára
‘the leek of wounds ’
   = SWORD

the leek of wounds → SWORD
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lauk ‘the leek’

laukr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): leek, mast

kennings

lauk sára
‘the leek of wounds ’
   = SWORD

the leek of wounds → SWORD
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hinns ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[7] Grjótvarar ‘Grjótvǫr [Steinvǫr]’: The (presumed) girlfriend under the protection of her unnamed father or guardian is named as Grjótvǫr, which appears to be ofljóst for Steinvǫr since grjót and steinn both mean ‘stone’ and the name Steinvǫr is attested while Grjótvǫr is not. The ‘stone’ element in the name, emphasised by ofljóst, chimes in with those in sts 6/7-8 and 8/4, but for what rhetorical purpose is unclear. This woman is mentioned nowhere else and may have been no more than the stereotypical ‘girl back home’. In an excerpt from Styrmir’s saga of Óláfr helgi in Flat, Óláfr composes a lausavísa (Ólhelg Lv 4) about the loss of a girlfriend, and there too there is mention of Staðr and a play on the idea of stones.

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Grjótvarar ‘Grjótvǫr [Steinvǫr]’

Grjótvǫr (noun f.): Grjótvǫr

notes

[7] Grjótvarar ‘Grjótvǫr [Steinvǫr]’: The (presumed) girlfriend under the protection of her unnamed father or guardian is named as Grjótvǫr, which appears to be ofljóst for Steinvǫr since grjót and steinn both mean ‘stone’ and the name Steinvǫr is attested while Grjótvǫr is not. The ‘stone’ element in the name, emphasised by ofljóst, chimes in with those in sts 6/7-8 and 8/4, but for what rhetorical purpose is unclear. This woman is mentioned nowhere else and may have been no more than the stereotypical ‘girl back home’. In an excerpt from Styrmir’s saga of Óláfr helgi in Flat, Óláfr composes a lausavísa (Ólhelg Lv 4) about the loss of a girlfriend, and there too there is mention of Staðr and a play on the idea of stones.

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gætir ‘watches over’

2. gæta (verb): look after, care for

notes

[7] Grjótvarar ‘Grjótvǫr [Steinvǫr]’: The (presumed) girlfriend under the protection of her unnamed father or guardian is named as Grjótvǫr, which appears to be ofljóst for Steinvǫr since grjót and steinn both mean ‘stone’ and the name Steinvǫr is attested while Grjótvǫr is not. The ‘stone’ element in the name, emphasised by ofljóst, chimes in with those in sts 6/7-8 and 8/4, but for what rhetorical purpose is unclear. This woman is mentioned nowhere else and may have been no more than the stereotypical ‘girl back home’. In an excerpt from Styrmir’s saga of Óláfr helgi in Flat, Óláfr composes a lausavísa (Ólhelg Lv 4) about the loss of a girlfriend, and there too there is mention of Staðr and a play on the idea of stones.

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gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

Sá sveigir gunnborðs,
‘That brandisher of the battle-plank ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-plank → SHIELD
That brandisher of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

Sá sveigir gunnborðs,
‘That brandisher of the battle-plank ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-plank → SHIELD
That brandisher of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

borðs ‘plank’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

Sá sveigir gunnborðs,
‘That brandisher of the battle-plank ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-plank → SHIELD
That brandisher of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

borðs ‘plank’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

Sá sveigir gunnborðs,
‘That brandisher of the battle-plank ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle-plank → SHIELD
That brandisher of the SHIELD → WARRIOR
Close

Stað ‘of Stad’

3. Staðr (noun m.): [Stad]

notes

[8] Stað ‘Stad’: This is presumably the peninsula Stad or Stadlandet, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway.

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In the Óláfr sagas, as for st. 1; in Knýtl, as for st. 2.

[5-8]: This is the second occurrence of the refrain-like helmingr (see Note to st. 3/5-8), and this stanza also recapitulates other material used earlier in the flokkr. As explained in the Note to st. 3/5-8, Finnur Jónsson in Skj treats st. 9/5-8 as a variant of 3/5-8, and hence prints only ll. 1-4 of st. 9, except that ll. 7-8 are printed in a note to Skj AI, 221.

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