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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Refr Giz 1III

Edith Marold (ed.) 2017, ‘Hofgarða-Refr Gestsson, Poem about Gizurr gullbrárskáld 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 254.

Hofgarða-Refr GestssonPoem about Gizurr gullbrárskáld
12

háði ‘engaged’

2. heyja (verb): fight, wage (battle)

[1] háði: hafði Holm2, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, 325V, Flat, Tóm, ‘haf[…]’ 61, hafði í 325VII

Close

gný ‘in the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

gný Gunnar
‘in the din of Gunnr ’
   = BATTLE

in the din of Gunnr → BATTLE
Close

Gunnar ‘of Gunnr’

Gunnr (noun f.): Gunnr

[1] Gunnar: ‘g(u)nn[…]’ 61, gumnar Tóm

kennings

gný Gunnar
‘in the din of Gunnr ’
   = BATTLE

in the din of Gunnr → BATTLE
Close

gall ‘resounded’

gjalla (verb): to scream, shriek; to repay, return, pay for

[2] gall: ‘(gu)ll’(?) 61, gull Flat, Tóm

Close

bál ‘the fire’

bál (noun n.; °-s; -): fire

[2] bál: báls 73aˣ, 325V, Flat, Tóm, ‘(b)als’(?) 61

kennings

bál Hôars
‘the fire of Hárr ’
   = SWORD

the fire of Hárr → SWORD
Close

Hôars ‘of Hárr’

Háarr (noun m.): [Hárr, Hôarr]

[2] Hôars: hár 73aˣ, 325VII, 325V, hás 61

kennings

bál Hôars
‘the fire of Hárr ’
   = SWORD

the fire of Hárr → SWORD
Close

stála ‘of steel weapons’

1. stál (noun n.; °-s; -): steel, weapon, prow

[2] stála: so Holm2, J2ˣ, 321ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325V, skála Kˣ, 61, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

kennings

stála regn
‘rain-bold of steel weapons’
   = BATTLE

in the rain of steel weapons, → BATTLE

notes

[5-6] Draupnis dǫgg-Frey ‘the Freyr <god> of the dew of Draupnir <ring> [(lit. ‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’) GOLD > MAN]’: Draupnir (‘dripping one’) is Óðinn’s precious ring from which eight rings of a similar weight drip every nine nights (SnE 1998, I, 42). The name often appears in kennings for ‘gold’, which is referred to as drop, dew, rain, offspring etc. of Draupnir (Meissner 227).

Close

rimmu ‘of battle’

rimma (noun f.; °-u): battle

[3] rimmu: runnu J2ˣ, 73aˣ, 61, 325VII, 325V, Tóm, ‘runu’ Flat

kennings

Askr rimmu,
‘The ash-tree of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR

The ash-tree of battle, → WARRIOR
Close

askr ‘The ash-tree’

askr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): ash, ash-tree, ash-ship

kennings

Askr rimmu,
‘The ash-tree of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR

The ash-tree of battle, → WARRIOR
Close

við ‘against’

2. við (prep.): with, against

[3] við: ‘(við)’(?) 61

Close

rǫskva ‘brave’

rǫskr (adj.): brave

[3] rǫskva: rǫskvan Holm2, 61, rǫskum J2ˣ, ‘rauskna’ 321ˣ

Close

regn ‘in the rain’

regn (noun n.; °-s; -): rain < regndjarfr (adj.)

kennings

stála regn
‘rain-bold of steel weapons’
   = BATTLE

in the rain of steel weapons, → BATTLE
Close

Dal ‘The bow’

2. dalr (noun m.): (gen. -ar) bow < dalsteypir (noun m.)

kennings

Dalsteypir
‘The bow-destroyer ’
   = WARRIOR

The bow-destroyer → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 8] dalsteypir; ôr strauma ‘the bow-destroyer [WARRIOR]; messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’: This edn follows Kock’s (NN §784) interpretation (so also ÍF 27 and Turville-Petre 1976, 91). Dalsteypir ‘bow-destroyer’ has parallels in such kennings as skerðir málma ‘diminisher of weapons’ (Sturl Hryn 2/6II; see also Meissner 288). Kock (NN §839) himself lists several parallels of ôrr strauma ‘messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’. On the use of ôrr ‘messenger’ for ‘man’, see Meissner 272. The interpretation offered by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; Hkr 1893-1901), by contrast, requires both rearranging the kenning as well as isolating ár in l. 8: strauma dalsteypir = steypir strauma dal(s) ‘pourer of the currents of the bow [ARROWS > WARRIOR]’; ár (l. 8) is rendered as an adv. (ár ‘quickly’; cf. LP: 2. ár 5) modifying hjó ‘hew, struck’ (l. 1).

Close

steypir ‘destroyer’

steypir (noun m.; °-s): overcomer, destroyer < dalsteypir (noun m.)

[5] ‑steypir: ‑steypis 61, Flat, ‘stypis’ Tóm

kennings

Dalsteypir
‘The bow-destroyer ’
   = WARRIOR

The bow-destroyer → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 8] dalsteypir; ôr strauma ‘the bow-destroyer [WARRIOR]; messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’: This edn follows Kock’s (NN §784) interpretation (so also ÍF 27 and Turville-Petre 1976, 91). Dalsteypir ‘bow-destroyer’ has parallels in such kennings as skerðir málma ‘diminisher of weapons’ (Sturl Hryn 2/6II; see also Meissner 288). Kock (NN §839) himself lists several parallels of ôrr strauma ‘messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’. On the use of ôrr ‘messenger’ for ‘man’, see Meissner 272. The interpretation offered by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; Hkr 1893-1901), by contrast, requires both rearranging the kenning as well as isolating ár in l. 8: strauma dalsteypir = steypir strauma dal(s) ‘pourer of the currents of the bow [ARROWS > WARRIOR]’; ár (l. 8) is rendered as an adv. (ár ‘quickly’; cf. LP: 2. ár 5) modifying hjó ‘hew, struck’ (l. 1).

Close

Draupnis ‘of Draupnir’

Draupnir (noun m.): Draupnir

[5] Draupnis: ‘dreyfnis’ 321ˣ, ‘draupins’ Holm4, Tóm, ‘[...]is’ 61, ‘draupnnis’ Flat

kennings

Draupnis dǫgg-Frey
‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’
   = MAN

the dew of Draupnir his → GOLD
the Freyr of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[5-6] Draupnis dǫgg-Frey ‘the Freyr <god> of the dew of Draupnir <ring> [(lit. ‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’) GOLD > MAN]’: Draupnir (‘dripping one’) is Óðinn’s precious ring from which eight rings of a similar weight drip every nine nights (SnE 1998, I, 42). The name often appears in kennings for ‘gold’, which is referred to as drop, dew, rain, offspring etc. of Draupnir (Meissner 227).

Close

Draupnis ‘of Draupnir’

Draupnir (noun m.): Draupnir

[5] Draupnis: ‘dreyfnis’ 321ˣ, ‘draupins’ Holm4, Tóm, ‘[...]is’ 61, ‘draupnnis’ Flat

kennings

Draupnis dǫgg-Frey
‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’
   = MAN

the dew of Draupnir his → GOLD
the Freyr of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[5-6] Draupnis dǫgg-Frey ‘the Freyr <god> of the dew of Draupnir <ring> [(lit. ‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’) GOLD > MAN]’: Draupnir (‘dripping one’) is Óðinn’s precious ring from which eight rings of a similar weight drip every nine nights (SnE 1998, I, 42). The name often appears in kennings for ‘gold’, which is referred to as drop, dew, rain, offspring etc. of Draupnir (Meissner 227).

Close

dǫgg ‘of the dew’

dǫgg (noun f.; °-var/-ar, dat. -/-u; -var/-ar/dǫggir/daggir (cf. [$1242$])): dew < dǫggfreyr (noun m.)

[6] dǫgg‑: draugs‑ 61, Tóm, ‘dęggs‑’ 325VII

kennings

Draupnis dǫgg-Frey
‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’
   = MAN

the dew of Draupnir his → GOLD
the Freyr of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[5-6] Draupnis dǫgg-Frey ‘the Freyr <god> of the dew of Draupnir <ring> [(lit. ‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’) GOLD > MAN]’: Draupnir (‘dripping one’) is Óðinn’s precious ring from which eight rings of a similar weight drip every nine nights (SnE 1998, I, 42). The name often appears in kennings for ‘gold’, which is referred to as drop, dew, rain, offspring etc. of Draupnir (Meissner 227).

Close

dǫgg ‘of the dew’

dǫgg (noun f.; °-var/-ar, dat. -/-u; -var/-ar/dǫggir/daggir (cf. [$1242$])): dew < dǫggfreyr (noun m.)

[6] dǫgg‑: draugs‑ 61, Tóm, ‘dęggs‑’ 325VII

kennings

Draupnis dǫgg-Frey
‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’
   = MAN

the dew of Draupnir his → GOLD
the Freyr of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[5-6] Draupnis dǫgg-Frey ‘the Freyr <god> of the dew of Draupnir <ring> [(lit. ‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’) GOLD > MAN]’: Draupnir (‘dripping one’) is Óðinn’s precious ring from which eight rings of a similar weight drip every nine nights (SnE 1998, I, 42). The name often appears in kennings for ‘gold’, which is referred to as drop, dew, rain, offspring etc. of Draupnir (Meissner 227).

Close

Frey ‘the Freyr’

Freyr (noun m.): (a god) < dǫggfreyr (noun m.)

kennings

Draupnis dǫgg-Frey
‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’
   = MAN

the dew of Draupnir his → GOLD
the Freyr of the GOLD → MAN

notes

[5-6] Draupnis dǫgg-Frey ‘the Freyr <god> of the dew of Draupnir <ring> [(lit. ‘Draupnir’s dew-Freyr’) GOLD > MAN]’: Draupnir (‘dripping one’) is Óðinn’s precious ring from which eight rings of a similar weight drip every nine nights (SnE 1998, I, 42). The name often appears in kennings for ‘gold’, which is referred to as drop, dew, rain, offspring etc. of Draupnir (Meissner 227).

Close

hǫggvi ‘blow’

hǫgg (noun n.; °-s, dat. hǫggvi/hǫggi; -): blow < banahǫgg (noun n.): °dræbende hug, banehug; deathblow, mortal blow

[6] ‑hǫggvi: so Holm2, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, 325V, Flat, Tóm, ‘hoggv’ Kˣ, ‘hauggi’ 321ˣ, ‑hǫggvinn 61

Close

rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

[7] rauð járn: ‘[...]’ 61

Close

járn ‘iron-blades’

járn (noun n.; °-s; -): iron, weapon

[7] rauð járn: ‘[...]’ 61

Close

annan ‘upon another’

1. annarr (pron.; °f. ǫnnur, n. annat; pl. aðrir): (an)other, second

kennings

annan ôr strauma
‘upon another messenger of currents; ’
   = SEAFARER

upon another messenger of currents; → SEAFARER
Close

ôr ‘messenger’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger

[8] ôr: ‘a’ 73aˣ, 325V

kennings

annan ôr strauma
‘upon another messenger of currents; ’
   = SEAFARER

upon another messenger of currents; → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 8] dalsteypir; ôr strauma ‘the bow-destroyer [WARRIOR]; messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’: This edn follows Kock’s (NN §784) interpretation (so also ÍF 27 and Turville-Petre 1976, 91). Dalsteypir ‘bow-destroyer’ has parallels in such kennings as skerðir málma ‘diminisher of weapons’ (Sturl Hryn 2/6II; see also Meissner 288). Kock (NN §839) himself lists several parallels of ôrr strauma ‘messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’. On the use of ôrr ‘messenger’ for ‘man’, see Meissner 272. The interpretation offered by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; Hkr 1893-1901), by contrast, requires both rearranging the kenning as well as isolating ár in l. 8: strauma dalsteypir = steypir strauma dal(s) ‘pourer of the currents of the bow [ARROWS > WARRIOR]’; ár (l. 8) is rendered as an adv. (ár ‘quickly’; cf. LP: 2. ár 5) modifying hjó ‘hew, struck’ (l. 1).

Close

strauma ‘of currents’

straumr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): stream, current

[8] strauma: ‘struma’ J2ˣ

kennings

annan ôr strauma
‘upon another messenger of currents; ’
   = SEAFARER

upon another messenger of currents; → SEAFARER

notes

[5, 8] dalsteypir; ôr strauma ‘the bow-destroyer [WARRIOR]; messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’: This edn follows Kock’s (NN §784) interpretation (so also ÍF 27 and Turville-Petre 1976, 91). Dalsteypir ‘bow-destroyer’ has parallels in such kennings as skerðir málma ‘diminisher of weapons’ (Sturl Hryn 2/6II; see also Meissner 288). Kock (NN §839) himself lists several parallels of ôrr strauma ‘messenger of currents [SEAFARER]’. On the use of ôrr ‘messenger’ for ‘man’, see Meissner 272. The interpretation offered by Finnur Jónsson (Skj B; Hkr 1893-1901), by contrast, requires both rearranging the kenning as well as isolating ár in l. 8: strauma dalsteypir = steypir strauma dal(s) ‘pourer of the currents of the bow [ARROWS > WARRIOR]’; ár (l. 8) is rendered as an adv. (ár ‘quickly’; cf. LP: 2. ár 5) modifying hjó ‘hew, struck’ (l. 1).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Ólafs saga helga (ÓHHkr), the stanza is inserted into a prose report on the death of Gizurr gullbrárskáld at the battle of Stiklestad (29 August 1030). Gizurr is said to have wounded one man and killed another before he fell himself.

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