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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Víkv 14I

Judith Jesch (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Víkingarvísur 14’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 553.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonVíkingarvísur
131415

Malms ‘of the sword’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

[1] Malms: so Holm2, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, 68, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, ‘Mals’ Kˣ, malms with malmr written above R686ˣ, malm 78aˣ, 61

kennings

Malms munnrjóðr,
‘mouth-reddener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the mouth of the sword, → SWORD BLADE
The reddener of the SWORD BLADE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] malms munnrjóðr ‘the reddener of the mouth of the sword [(lit. ‘mouth-reddener of the sword’) SWORD BLADE > WARRIOR]’: Meissner would count this and similar expressions for sword blades as free combinations (freie Verbindungen, Meissner 163) rather than kennings as such.

Close

Malms ‘of the sword’

malmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): metal

[1] Malms: so Holm2, J2ˣ, 73aˣ, 68, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Bb, Flat, Tóm, ‘Mals’ Kˣ, malms with malmr written above R686ˣ, malm 78aˣ, 61

kennings

Malms munnrjóðr,
‘mouth-reddener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the mouth of the sword, → SWORD BLADE
The reddener of the SWORD BLADE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] malms munnrjóðr ‘the reddener of the mouth of the sword [(lit. ‘mouth-reddener of the sword’) SWORD BLADE > WARRIOR]’: Meissner would count this and similar expressions for sword blades as free combinations (freie Verbindungen, Meissner 163) rather than kennings as such.

Close

vann ‘fought’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

[1] vann Mœra hilmir: om. 78aˣ;    vann: rauð 61, fann 325V

Close

Mœra ‘of the Mœrir’

1. Mœrir (noun m.; °; -ir): pl. Mœrir

[1] vann Mœra hilmir: om. 78aˣ;    Mœra: meira Bb

kennings

hilmir Mœra,
‘the ruler of the Mœrir, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the ruler of the Mœrir, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[1] hilmir Mœra ‘the ruler of the Mœrir [NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr]’: See the Note to st. 13/2-3. The kenning is taken here (as in Skald and ÍF 27) in apposition to the warrior-kenning in ll. 1-2. In Skj B it is taken as the subject to the intercalary es kom sunnan ‘when he came from the south’.

Close

hilmir ‘the ruler’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

[1] vann Mœra hilmir: om. 78aˣ

kennings

hilmir Mœra,
‘the ruler of the Mœrir, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

the ruler of the Mœrir, → NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr

notes

[1] hilmir Mœra ‘the ruler of the Mœrir [NORWEGIAN KING = Óláfr]’: See the Note to st. 13/2-3. The kenning is taken here (as in Skald and ÍF 27) in apposition to the warrior-kenning in ll. 1-2. In Skj B it is taken as the subject to the intercalary es kom sunnan ‘when he came from the south’.

Close

munn ‘of the mouth’

munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth < munnrjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

Malms munnrjóðr,
‘mouth-reddener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the mouth of the sword, → SWORD BLADE
The reddener of the SWORD BLADE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] malms munnrjóðr ‘the reddener of the mouth of the sword [(lit. ‘mouth-reddener of the sword’) SWORD BLADE > WARRIOR]’: Meissner would count this and similar expressions for sword blades as free combinations (freie Verbindungen, Meissner 163) rather than kennings as such.

Close

munn ‘of the mouth’

munnr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): mouth < munnrjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

Malms munnrjóðr,
‘mouth-reddener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the mouth of the sword, → SWORD BLADE
The reddener of the SWORD BLADE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] malms munnrjóðr ‘the reddener of the mouth of the sword [(lit. ‘mouth-reddener of the sword’) SWORD BLADE > WARRIOR]’: Meissner would count this and similar expressions for sword blades as free combinations (freie Verbindungen, Meissner 163) rather than kennings as such.

Close

rjóðr ‘The reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < munnrjóðr (noun m.)

kennings

Malms munnrjóðr,
‘mouth-reddener of the sword’
   = WARRIOR

the mouth of the sword, → SWORD BLADE
The reddener of the SWORD BLADE → WARRIOR

notes

[1, 2] malms munnrjóðr ‘the reddener of the mouth of the sword [(lit. ‘mouth-reddener of the sword’) SWORD BLADE > WARRIOR]’: Meissner would count this and similar expressions for sword blades as free combinations (freie Verbindungen, Meissner 163) rather than kennings as such.

Close

es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] es kom sunnan: hugins kunnan 73aˣ, 78aˣ;    es (‘er’): om. 68

Close

kom ‘he came’

koma (verb; kem, kom/kvam, kominn): come

[2] es kom sunnan: hugins kunnan 73aˣ, 78aˣ;    kom: komt R686ˣ, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

Close

sunnan ‘from the south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

[2] es kom sunnan: hugins kunnan 73aˣ, 78aˣ

Close

gang ‘his way’

2. ganga (verb; geng, gekk, gengu, genginn): walk, go

[3] gang: so R686ˣ, 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 68, 61, Bb, gangr Kˣ, gagn Holm2, J2ˣ, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

Close

þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

Close

gamlr ‘’

Close

gamlir ‘old’

gamall (adj.; °gamlan; compar. & superl. „ ellri adj.): old

[3] gamlir: ‘gamlr’ R686ˣ

Close

sprungu ‘shattered’

springa (verb): burst, spring apart

[3] sprungu: sungu 73aˣ, 78aˣ, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

Close

geirir ‘’

Close

geirar ‘spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

[4] geirar: ‘geirer’ R686ˣ

Close

upp ‘up’

upp (adv.): up

[4] upp: út 68, 61

Close

at ‘to’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[4] at: á J2ˣ, Flat, Tóm

Close

leitu ‘’

Close

Leiru ‘the Loire’

Leira (noun f.): [Loire]

[4] Leiru: ‘leitu’ Tóm

notes

[4, 6, 8] Leiru; Varrandi; Peitu ‘the Loire; Varrandi; Poitou’: Leira is the Loire, and there is indeed a Guerrande (now mostly spelt Guérande) at the mouth of this river, a name which accords well with Varrandi. However, it is in southern Brittany, not in Poitou, nor is it ‘far from the sea’ (l. 6). Sigvatr is either mildly confused in his geography here, or has conflated two or more separate incidents. Ótt Hfl 12/1-2 states that Óláfr ‘laid waste to Poitou’ and fought in Touraine (the area around Tours, also on the Loire). Óttarr’s stanza may indeed record raids in these areas that were not mentioned by Sigvatr, or that have not survived in Víkv (note that the numbering of battles has ceased by this point: see Introduction above). For Continental records of Óláfr’s stay in France, see Note to Ótt Hfl 12 [All].

Close

varðuð ‘’

Close

Varð ‘was’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[5] Varð fyr: ‘warrðuð’ 73aˣ

Close

fyr ‘for’

fyr (prep.): for, over, because of, etc.

[5] Varð fyr: ‘warrðuð’ 73aˣ

notes

[5] fyr Njǫrðum víga ‘for the Nirðir <gods> of battles [WARRIORS]’: The prep. fyr could mean either ‘before’, hence ‘(burned) by’, with the kenning referring to the attacking Scandinavian warriors (so Kock, NN §2470; Fell 1981b), or ‘for, to the disadvantage of’ (cf. Note to Hfr ErfÓl 24/8), referring to the inhabitants of the town (so ÍF 27). The translation here assumes the latter, since otherwise this would be the only full stanza without any mention of Óláfr’s opponents.

Close

víga ‘of battles’

víg (noun n.; °-s; -): battle

kennings

Njǫrðum víga;
‘the Nirðir of battles; ’
   = WARRIORS

the Nirðir of battles; → WARRIORS

notes

[5] fyr Njǫrðum víga ‘for the Nirðir <gods> of battles [WARRIORS]’: The prep. fyr could mean either ‘before’, hence ‘(burned) by’, with the kenning referring to the attacking Scandinavian warriors (so Kock, NN §2470; Fell 1981b), or ‘for, to the disadvantage of’ (cf. Note to Hfr ErfÓl 24/8), referring to the inhabitants of the town (so ÍF 27). The translation here assumes the latter, since otherwise this would be the only full stanza without any mention of Óláfr’s opponents.

Close

Njǫrðum ‘the Nirðir’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr

[5] Njǫrðum: morði 61, meiðum 325V

kennings

Njǫrðum víga;
‘the Nirðir of battles; ’
   = WARRIORS

the Nirðir of battles; → WARRIORS

notes

[5] fyr Njǫrðum víga ‘for the Nirðir <gods> of battles [WARRIORS]’: The prep. fyr could mean either ‘before’, hence ‘(burned) by’, with the kenning referring to the attacking Scandinavian warriors (so Kock, NN §2470; Fell 1981b), or ‘for, to the disadvantage of’ (cf. Note to Hfr ErfÓl 24/8), referring to the inhabitants of the town (so ÍF 27). The translation here assumes the latter, since otherwise this would be the only full stanza without any mention of Óláfr’s opponents.

Close

Varrandi ‘Varrandi’

Varrandi (noun m.): Varrandi

[6] Varrandi: Varranda 73aˣ, 78aˣ

notes

[4, 6, 8] Leiru; Varrandi; Peitu ‘the Loire; Varrandi; Poitou’: Leira is the Loire, and there is indeed a Guerrande (now mostly spelt Guérande) at the mouth of this river, a name which accords well with Varrandi. However, it is in southern Brittany, not in Poitou, nor is it ‘far from the sea’ (l. 6). Sigvatr is either mildly confused in his geography here, or has conflated two or more separate incidents. Ótt Hfl 12/1-2 states that Óláfr ‘laid waste to Poitou’ and fought in Touraine (the area around Tours, also on the Loire). Óttarr’s stanza may indeed record raids in these areas that were not mentioned by Sigvatr, or that have not survived in Víkv (note that the numbering of battles has ceased by this point: see Introduction above). For Continental records of Óláfr’s stay in France, see Note to Ótt Hfl 12 [All].

Close

sjá ‘the sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea

[6] sjá: sá 325VII, Bb

Close

fjarri ‘far from’

fjarri (adv.): far, far from it, unlikely

[6] fjarri: ‘fí[...]a’ Tóm

Close

brenndr ‘burned’

3. brenna (verb; (weak, transitive)): to burn (weak, intr.)

[7] brenndr: brennd R686ˣ, 68

Close

Peitu ‘of Poitou’

Peita (noun f.): Poitou

[8] Peitu: ‘(f)etto’(?) R686ˣ, Peita Tóm

notes

[4, 6, 8] Leiru; Varrandi; Peitu ‘the Loire; Varrandi; Poitou’: Leira is the Loire, and there is indeed a Guerrande (now mostly spelt Guérande) at the mouth of this river, a name which accords well with Varrandi. However, it is in southern Brittany, not in Poitou, nor is it ‘far from the sea’ (l. 6). Sigvatr is either mildly confused in his geography here, or has conflated two or more separate incidents. Ótt Hfl 12/1-2 states that Óláfr ‘laid waste to Poitou’ and fought in Touraine (the area around Tours, also on the Loire). Óttarr’s stanza may indeed record raids in these areas that were not mentioned by Sigvatr, or that have not survived in Víkv (note that the numbering of battles has ceased by this point: see Introduction above). For Continental records of Óláfr’s stay in France, see Note to Ótt Hfl 12 [All].

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Following a dream summoning him to kingship in Norway, Óláfr abandons his plan to visit the Holy Land and raids Peituland (Poitou), sacking a market town called Varrandi. The stanza follows immediately on from Ótt Hfl 12.

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