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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Sigv Austv 16I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Sigvatr Þórðarson, Austrfararvísur 16’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 605.

Sigvatr ÞórðarsonAustrfararvísur
151617

birta ‘’

(not checked:)
2. birta (verb; °-rt-): reveal

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hilmis ‘of the ruler’

(not checked:)
hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

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hjǫlmum ‘with helmets’

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1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet

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hirð ‘Courtiers’

(not checked:)
hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue < hirðmaðr (noun m.): retainer

notes

[2] hirðmenn ‘courtiers’: This is one of the earliest attestations of this borrowing of OE hīredmenn ‘household retainers’: see Hofmann (1955, 57-8), and see Note to l. 8 below; see also Sigv Nesv 6/3 hirð and Note.

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menn ‘’

(not checked:)
maðr (noun m.): man, person < hirðmaðr (noun m.): retainer

notes

[2] hirðmenn ‘courtiers’: This is one of the earliest attestations of this borrowing of OE hīredmenn ‘household retainers’: see Hofmann (1955, 57-8), and see Note to l. 8 below; see also Sigv Nesv 6/3 hirð and Note.

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þeirs ‘who’

(not checked:)
2. er (conj.): who, which, when

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val ‘’

(not checked:)
2. valr (noun m.; °-s): falcon

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svan ‘the swan’

(not checked:)
svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

[2] svan: val 61

kennings

svan bens,
‘the swan of the wound, ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the swan of the wound, → RAVEN/EAGLE
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grenna ‘feed’

(not checked:)
1. grenna (verb): feed

notes

[2] grenna ‘feed’: The verb (AEW: grenna 2) also occurs in Sigv Lv 21/7, and the nomen agentis grennir ‘feeder’ is common in warrior-kennings (e.g. Halli XI Fl 2/8II hrafngrennir ‘raven-feeder’, and see Note; also Meissner 294). There may also be word-play on the more usual meaning ‘make thin’ (AEW: grenna 1).

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hér ‘here’

(not checked:)
hér (adv.): here

[3] hér: om. 325V

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kveð ‘’

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kveða (verb): say, recite

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sék ‘I see’

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2. sjá (verb): see

[3] sék (‘se ec’): sé R686ˣ, kveð ek Kˣ

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bems ‘’

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bens ‘of the wound’

(not checked:)
2. ben (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

[3] bens: ‘bems’ J2ˣ

kennings

svan bens,
‘the swan of the wound, ’
   = RAVEN/EAGLE

the swan of the wound, → RAVEN/EAGLE
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á ‘’

(not checked:)
3. á (prep.): on, at

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ok ‘and’

(not checked:)
3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[3] ok: á 61

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brynjum ‘mail-shirts’

(not checked:)
1. brynja (noun f.; °-u (dat. brynnoni Gibb 38⁹); -ur): mailcoat

[3] brynjum: brynjur R686ˣ, 972ˣ, brynju 325VI, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Kˣ, búnum 61

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á ‘on’

(not checked:)
3. á (prep.): on, at

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Því ‘And’

(not checked:)
því (adv.): therefore, because

[5] Því á: so Kˣ, Bb, því at Holm2, 325V, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

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at ‘’

(not checked:)
4. at (conj.): that

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á ‘so’

(not checked:)
3. á (prep.): on, at

[5] Því á: so Kˣ, Bb, því at Holm2, 325V, R686ˣ, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Tóm

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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ungs ‘’

(not checked:)
ungr (adj.): young

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ungr ‘young’

(not checked:)
ungr (adj.): young

[5] ungr konungr: ungs konungs 75a, 73aˣ, konungr ungr Tóm

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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konungr ‘king’

(not checked:)
konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

[5] ungr konungr: ungs konungs 75a, 73aˣ, konungr ungr Tóm

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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engi ‘no’

(not checked:)
2. engi (pron.): no, none

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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ygg ‘a doubt’

(not checked:)
2. yggr (adj.): [a doubt] < ygglauss (adj.): [without fear]

[6] ygg‑: so 325V, 972ˣ, J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 61, Tóm, ugg‑ Holm2, R686ˣ, Holm4, 325VII, Flat, Kˣ, Bb

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þyggra ‘’

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dyggra ‘has worthier’

(not checked:)
dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy

[6] dyggra: so J2ˣ, 325VI, 75a, 73aˣ, 68, 61, Holm4, 325VII, Tóm, Bb, dyggva Holm2, 325V, R686ˣ, tryggra 972ˣ, ‘þyggra’ Flat, dyggr Kˣ

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

Close

hús ‘’

(not checked:)
hús (noun n.; °-s; -): house < húsbúnaðr (noun m.)hús (noun n.; °-s; -): house

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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búaði ‘’

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búnaði ‘hangings’

(not checked:)
búnaðr (noun m.): [hangings] < húsbúnaðr (noun m.)

[7] ‑búnaði: ‘‑bvadi’ 325V

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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á ‘’

(not checked:)
3. á (prep.): on, at

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á ‘’

(not checked:)
3. á (prep.): on, at

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at ‘to’

(not checked:)
5. at (nota): to (with infinitive)

[7] at: á 972ˣ, om. 75a, 73aˣ, á corrected from at 325VII

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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hrósar ‘’

(not checked:)
hrósa (verb): praise

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hrósa ‘boast of’

(not checked:)
hrósa (verb): praise

[7] hrósa: hrósar 75a, 73aˣ

notes

[5, 6-7] því á engi ungr konungr dyggra húsbúnaði at hrósa ‘and so no young king has worthier hangings to boast of’: (a) Því (n. dat. sg., l. 5) is here assumed to be the adv. ‘and so, therefore’, while á is ‘has’, 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of eiga (so also ÍF 27; Hkr 1991). (b) Finnur Jónsson in Skj B adopts the ÓH reading því(a)t ‘because’ (so Fms, Konráð Gíslason 1892, 179 and, with different syntax, Gering 1912, 143). This produces superior meaning but has the disadvantage of requiring the reading á ‘has’ for at ‘to’ in l. 7, whereas at is what all the most reliable mss say. (c) Því cannot be a dat. of comparison, ‘(worthier) than that’, because in that event one would expect it to be stressed and to be m. in agreement with húsbúnaði ‘hangings’.

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hǫll ‘the hall’

(not checked:)
1. hǫll (noun f.; °hallar, dat. -u/-; hallir): hall

notes

[8] hǫll ‘the hall’: Sigvatr is the first named skald to use this word in reference to a jarl’s or a king’s hall, doubtless because of English influence at the court of Óláfr (cf. OE heall): see Hofmann (1955, 50).

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dýr ‘costly’

(not checked:)
dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

[8] dýr: dýrst R686ˣ, 972ˣ

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með ‘in’

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með (prep.): with

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ǫllu ‘every respect’

(not checked:)
allr (adj.): all

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

On his return to King Óláfr’s court, Sigvatr speaks this stanza while observing the walls.

Sahlgren (1927-8, I, 199-200), supported by van Eeden (1943, 231), argues plausibly that the stanza does not, as Snorri says, concern Óláfr’s hall but Rǫgnvaldr’s.

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