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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Hfr ErfÓl 10I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld Óttarsson, Erfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar 10’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 415.

Hallfreðr vandræðaskáld ÓttarssonErfidrápa Óláfs Tryggvasonar
91011

Sukku ‘sank’

1. søkkva (verb): sink, strong intrans.

[1] Sukku: ‘sukk[...]’ 325VIII 1

Close

af ‘off’

af (prep.): from

notes

[1] af Naðri ‘off Naðr (“Adder”)’: A pun on the name of Óláfr’s longship Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’. Similar puns or ofljóst expressions, referring to the ship by means of other terms for ‘snake’, ‘serpent’ or ‘dragon’, occur in sts 14/2 and 16/4 below and widely elsewhere, e.g. Hókr Eirfl 3/8, 8/6, HSt Rst 18/2, 23/4, Anon Óldr 21/4, Anon Ól 4/6. The witty repetition of the name of this famous ship here and in st. 16 may be one reason why these stanzas were so widely preserved. Ormr is also named directly twice in l. 5 of the present stanza and frequently elsewhere, e.g. sts 17/1, 24/5 below, Hókr Eirfl 3/4, HSt Rst 15/5, Anon Óldr 19/6, Anon Ól 6/2. For the ship, see Note to Hókr Eirfl 3/4.

Close

Naðri ‘Naðr (‘Adder’)’

naðr (noun m.): snake

notes

[1] af Naðri ‘off Naðr (“Adder”)’: A pun on the name of Óláfr’s longship Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’. Similar puns or ofljóst expressions, referring to the ship by means of other terms for ‘snake’, ‘serpent’ or ‘dragon’, occur in sts 14/2 and 16/4 below and widely elsewhere, e.g. Hókr Eirfl 3/8, 8/6, HSt Rst 18/2, 23/4, Anon Óldr 21/4, Anon Ól 4/6. The witty repetition of the name of this famous ship here and in st. 16 may be one reason why these stanzas were so widely preserved. Ormr is also named directly twice in l. 5 of the present stanza and frequently elsewhere, e.g. sts 17/1, 24/5 below, Hókr Eirfl 3/4, HSt Rst 15/5, Anon Óldr 19/6, Anon Ól 6/2. For the ship, see Note to Hókr Eirfl 3/4.

Close

nadd ‘of point’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddfár (noun n.)

[2] nadd‑: ‘nað‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 53, ‘nad‑’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

nadd ‘of point’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddfár (noun n.)

[2] nadd‑: ‘nað‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 53, ‘nad‑’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

nadd ‘of point’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddfár (noun n.)

[2] nadd‑: ‘nað‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 53, ‘nad‑’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

nadd ‘of point’

naddr (noun m.; °-s; -ar): spear, point < naddfár (noun n.)

[2] nadd‑: ‘nað‑’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 53, ‘nad‑’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

fárs ‘harm’

2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger < naddfár (noun n.)2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

fárs ‘harm’

2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger < naddfár (noun n.)2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

fárs ‘harm’

2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger < naddfár (noun n.)2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

fárs ‘harm’

2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger < naddfár (noun n.)2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger2. fár (noun n.; °-s): harm, danger

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[2] naddfárs ‘of point-harm [BATTLE]’: This word is difficult to accommodate in the syntax, particularly in interpretations based on Heðins in l. 4. (a) Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901 and Skj B) emends -fárs to -fár, hence vægjask við naddbaugs fár ‘to yield/spare themselves in the spear-harm of the ring’, where naddbaugr is (tentatively) ‘spear-ring’, hence ‘shield’ and its fár ‘harm’ is ‘battle’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV). (b) ÍF 26, ÍF 29, Hkr 1991 and ÍF 25 attach naddfárs ‘of point-harm’ to bǫð ‘battle’ to form an expression for ‘battle’. But bǫð naddfárs is not a true kenning, as the base-word bǫð ‘battle’ is the same as the referent; moreover, ‘battle’ is the primary meaning of naddfárs as well. (c) Similar objections exist to suggestions made by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (SHI 2; LP (1860): naddfár). (d) Kock (NN §476) reads naddfárs í bǫð as a loose periphrasis meaning ‘in spear-battle’. (e) Hkr 1991 reads af Naðri naddfárs as ‘from Naðr [where there was] point-harm’. (f) Naddfárs could be regarded as an adverbial gen. of place, ‘in the point-harm [BATTLE]’, with gerðut vægjask við ‘did not yield’ (see NS §141, though the parallels are not exact; also Poole 2004).

Close

sárir ‘Wounded’

sárr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): sore, painful; wounded

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

bǫðs ‘’

Close

baugs ‘of the ring’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

[3] baugs: bǫðs J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

baugs ‘of the ring’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

[3] baugs: bǫðs J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

baugs ‘of the ring’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

[3] baugs: bǫðs J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

gerðut ‘they did not’

1. gera (verb): do, make

[3] gerðut (‘gerðoð’): gerðusk 310, Kˣ, Flat, gerðu F, ‘[…]vt’ 325VIII 1

Close

vegjar ‘’

Close

vęigiaz ‘’

Close

vegja ‘’

Close

vægjask ‘yield’

1. vægja (verb): yield

[3] vægjask: ‘vegia’ J1ˣ, ‘vegiar’ J2ˣ, ‘vęigiaz’ Bb

Close

verkomendr ‘’

Close

verkendr ‘workers’

verkandi (noun m.): [workers]

[4] verkendr: ‘verkomendr’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

megin ‘of the mighty’

meginn (adj.; °megnan; compar. megnari, superl. megnastr): strength

[4] megin: so Kˣ, F, 325VIII 1, Heðins FskAˣ, Holm18, 310, 4‑7, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, Flat, ‘hendiss’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[4] megin- ‘mighty’: (a) This, the reading of some Hkr mss, provides the best solution to the helmingr’s excess of nominal elements and is adopted here, although, since Heðins is shared by all other ms. groupings, megin may be suspected to be a post-compositional lectio facilior. (b) Another interpretation involving megin yields verkendr meginserkjar baugs ‘workers of the mighty shirt of the ring [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’, but this leaves naddfárs to be accounted for, and the solutions mentioned in the Note to l. 2. are not wholly satisfactory. (c) The majority reading Heðins may be influenced by the occurrence of the name in sts 12/4 (see Note) and 24/3, 4. If correct, it could be accommodated by reading verkendr baugs serkjar Heðins ‘workers of the snake of the shirt of Heðinn <legendary hero> [MAIL-SHIRT > SWORD > WARRIORS]’, following a tentative suggestion by Ólafur Halldórsson in ÍF 25. Baugr m., normally ‘ring’, could be taken to mean ‘snake, coiling creature’ on the basis of its appearance in snake-kennings of the pattern ‘baugr of the earth’ (LP: baugr 1). (d) See SHI for a different interpretation.

Close

megin ‘of the mighty’

meginn (adj.; °megnan; compar. megnari, superl. megnastr): strength

[4] megin: so Kˣ, F, 325VIII 1, Heðins FskAˣ, Holm18, 310, 4‑7, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, Flat, ‘hendiss’ 54, Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS

notes

[4] megin- ‘mighty’: (a) This, the reading of some Hkr mss, provides the best solution to the helmingr’s excess of nominal elements and is adopted here, although, since Heðins is shared by all other ms. groupings, megin may be suspected to be a post-compositional lectio facilior. (b) Another interpretation involving megin yields verkendr meginserkjar baugs ‘workers of the mighty shirt of the ring [MAIL-SHIRT > WARRIORS]’, but this leaves naddfárs to be accounted for, and the solutions mentioned in the Note to l. 2. are not wholly satisfactory. (c) The majority reading Heðins may be influenced by the occurrence of the name in sts 12/4 (see Note) and 24/3, 4. If correct, it could be accommodated by reading verkendr baugs serkjar Heðins ‘workers of the snake of the shirt of Heðinn <legendary hero> [MAIL-SHIRT > SWORD > WARRIORS]’, following a tentative suggestion by Ólafur Halldórsson in ÍF 25. Baugr m., normally ‘ring’, could be taken to mean ‘snake, coiling creature’ on the basis of its appearance in snake-kennings of the pattern ‘baugr of the earth’ (LP: baugr 1). (d) See SHI for a different interpretation.

Close

serkjar ‘shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

[4] serkjar: om. Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

serkjar ‘shirt’

1. serkr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -/-i; -ir): shirt

[4] serkjar: om. Bb

kennings

Sárir verkendr meginserkjar baugs naddfárs
‘Wounded workers of the mighty shirt of the ring of point-harm ’
   = WARRIORS

point -harm → BATTLE
the ring of the BATTLE → SHIELD
the mighty shirt of the SHIELD → MAIL-SHIRT
Wounded workers of the MAIL-SHIRT → WARRIORS
Close

Vanr ‘lack’

2. vanr (adj.): lacking

[5] Vanr: vant 4‑7, ‘[…]nr’ 325VIII 1

Close

mun ‘will’

munu (verb): will, must

[5] mun: munat F

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þótt ‘though’

þótt (conj.): although

[5] þótt: at Bb, af Flat

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alldýrr ‘a very eminent’

alldýrr (adj.): [a very eminent]

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stýri ‘may command’

stýra (verb): steer, control

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hvars ‘wherever’

hvars (conj.): wherever

[7] hvars (‘hvars hann’): so Holm18, 310, Kˣ, F, þar er hann FskAˣ, þars 4‑7, 53, ‘[…]vars hann’ 325VIII 1, þars hann J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, þar 54, Bb, hvars er hann Flat

notes

[7] hvars ‘wherever’: Þars ‘where’, the reading of many mss, also makes sense but is less emphatic.

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skríðr ‘it glides’

skríða (verb): creep, glide

[7] skríðr: skreið 4‑7, skirðr 325VIII 1

notes

[7] skríðr ‘it glides’: Hann ‘it’ (referring to the ship Ormr inn langi) is inserted in most mss before skríðr to clarify the syntax, but it renders the line hypermetric.

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lið ‘a company’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

[7] lið: ‘liþ’ apparently corrected from ‘lyþ’ 310

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lengi ‘long’

lengi (adv.): for a long time

[8] lengi: lengri Bb

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slíkra ‘such’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Óláfr’s men leap on to Ormr inn langi’s gunwales in their eagerness to reach their enemies; many end up in the sea.

[2-4]: The overall meaning is clear, with verkendr ‘workers’, albeit unparalleled, as the base-word of a warrior-kenning which is the subject of sukku ‘sank’; but the gen. nouns naddfárs, baugs, Heðins and serkjar are difficult to account for in the absence of another base-word. The minority reading megin- is therefore adopted here in preference to Heðins (see Notes to ll. 2 and 4 below).

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