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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Glúmr Gráf 5I

Alison Finlay (ed.) 2012, ‘Glúmr Geirason, Gráfeldardrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 254.

Glúmr GeirasonGráfeldardrápa
456

rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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und ‘wearing’

3. und (prep.): under, underneath

[1] und: om. Tˣ(41r), í B

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hjalmi ‘a helmet’

1. hjalmr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): helmet

[1] hjalmi: hjalma B

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heina ‘of whetstones’

heinir (noun m.): inhabitant of Hedemarken

[2] heina: hregg B

kennings

laut heina
‘the dell of whetstones ’
   = SWORD

the dell of whetstones → SWORD

notes

[2] laut heina ‘the dell of whetstones [SWORD]’: Laut f. ‘hollow place, dell’ is used elsewhere in kennings to represent land in general (see LP: laut). The conception of the sword as the ground that the whetstone covers is also found in, e.g., Hallv Knútdr 5/3III heinland ‘whetstone-land’.

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lautr ‘’

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laut ‘the dell’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow

[2] laut: so Tˣ(37r), Tˣ(41r), W, U(37r), C, lǫt R(35v), R(39v), ‘lautr’ U(34v), ‘[…]’ B

kennings

laut heina
‘the dell of whetstones ’
   = SWORD

the dell of whetstones → SWORD

notes

[2] laut heina ‘the dell of whetstones [SWORD]’: Laut f. ‘hollow place, dell’ is used elsewhere in kennings to represent land in general (see LP: laut). The conception of the sword as the ground that the whetstone covers is also found in, e.g., Hallv Knútdr 5/3III heinland ‘whetstone-land’.

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[…]elkings ‘’

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[2] á Gautum: so Tˣ(37r), Tˣ(41r), W, U(34v), U(37r), und Gautum R(35v), ágætum R(39v), ‘[…]elkings eggiar’ B, á beinu C

notes

[2] á Gautum ‘on the Gautar’: The people of Gautland (Götaland, southern Sweden). Haraldr gráfeldr and his brothers are more than once said to make a practice of raiding during the summers, but there is no specific reference in the prose sources to any attack in this region.

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Gautum ‘the Gautar’

gauti (noun m.): man, Geat

[2] á Gautum: so Tˣ(37r), Tˣ(41r), W, U(34v), U(37r), und Gautum R(35v), ágætum R(39v), ‘[…]elkings eggiar’ B, á beinu C

notes

[2] á Gautum ‘on the Gautar’: The people of Gautland (Götaland, southern Sweden). Haraldr gráfeldr and his brothers are more than once said to make a practice of raiding during the summers, but there is no specific reference in the prose sources to any attack in this region.

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

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gný ‘the din’

gnýr (noun m.): din, tumult

kennings

gný geira.
‘the din of spears. ’
   = BATTLE

the din of spears. → BATTLE
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geira ‘of spears’

geirr (noun m.): spear

kennings

gný geira.
‘the din of spears. ’
   = BATTLE

the din of spears. → BATTLE
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grundar ‘of ground’

grund (noun f.): earth, land

kennings

vǫrðr grundar
‘the guardian of ground ’
   = RULER = Haraldr

the guardian of ground → RULER = Haraldr
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vǫrðr ‘the guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

vǫrðr grundar
‘the guardian of ground ’
   = RULER = Haraldr

the guardian of ground → RULER = Haraldr
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza is included among four that illustrate kennings for ‘king’, in this case vǫrðr lands ‘guardian of land’. The first two lines are repeated in most mss at a point where heiti for kings (here hilmir) are exemplified.

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