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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Mgr 35VII

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Drápa af Máríugrát 35’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 783-4.

Anonymous PoemsDrápa af Máríugrát
343536

lík ‘the body’

1. lík (noun n.; °-s; -): body, shape

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

láða* ‘of the lands’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[2] láða*: láðar 713

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

láða* ‘of the lands’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[2] láða*: láðar 713

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

láða* ‘of the lands’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

[2] láða*: láðar 713

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

runna* ‘of the trees’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

[2] runna*: runnar 713

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

runna* ‘of the trees’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

[2] runna*: runnar 713

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

hilmis ‘of the lord’

hilmir (noun m.): prince, protector

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

hilmis runna* láða* sunnu
‘of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun ’
   = God

the lands of the sun → SKY/HEAVEN
the trees of the SKY/HEAVEN → ANGELS
the lord of ANGELS → God

notes

[1, 2] lík hilmis runna* láða* sunnu ‘the body of the lord of the trees of the lands of the sun [SKY/HEAVEN > ANGELS > = God (= Christ)]’: These emendations are conjectural. The ms. reading láðar is ungrammatical (the noun láð ‘land’ is n.). Skj B and Skald emend láðar to Laufa ‘of Laufi <sword>’, which is taken as the determinant in the kenning runnar Laufa ‘the trees of Laufi <sword>’ (i.e. ‘warriors, men’). That interpretation forces the emendation of huldi (3rd pers. sg. pret. indic.) ‘hid’ (l. 1) to huldu (3rd pers. pl. pret. indic.) ‘hid’. Wrightson accepts the latter emendation and reads runnar laðar ‘the bushes of the metal plate’ [MEN] which is unmetrical, because the syllable in l.-initial position must be long (láð- rather than lað-) to avoid resolution and a hypometrical l.

Close

mista ‘lost’

mista (verb): lose

Close

aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

Close

neitt ‘anything’

1. neita (verb): refuse

Close

lofðungs ‘of the ruler’

lofðungr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, leader

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary
Close

lofðungs ‘of the ruler’

lofðungr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, leader

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary
Close

móðir ‘the mother’

móðir (noun f.): mother

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary
Close

hvílaz ‘to rest’

2. hvíla (verb): rest

Close

himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary

notes

[7] veldis himna ‘of the realm of the heavens’: Wrightson takes this as the determinant in a kenning with a suppressed base-word (stillis ‘lord’), a parallel construction to stillis heiðar tjalds ‘the lord of the heath’s tent’ (l. 8).

Close

himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary

notes

[7] veldis himna ‘of the realm of the heavens’: Wrightson takes this as the determinant in a kenning with a suppressed base-word (stillis ‘lord’), a parallel construction to stillis heiðar tjalds ‘the lord of the heath’s tent’ (l. 8).

Close

veldis ‘of the realm’

veldi (noun n.): realm

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary

notes

[7] veldis himna ‘of the realm of the heavens’: Wrightson takes this as the determinant in a kenning with a suppressed base-word (stillis ‘lord’), a parallel construction to stillis heiðar tjalds ‘the lord of the heath’s tent’ (l. 8).

Close

veldis ‘of the realm’

veldi (noun n.): realm

kennings

móðir lofðungs veldis himna,
‘the mother of the ruler of the realm of the heavens, ’
   = Mary

the ruler of the realm of the heavens, → God
the mother of GOD → Mary

notes

[7] veldis himna ‘of the realm of the heavens’: Wrightson takes this as the determinant in a kenning with a suppressed base-word (stillis ‘lord’), a parallel construction to stillis heiðar tjalds ‘the lord of the heath’s tent’ (l. 8).

Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’s’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

stillis heiðar tjalds.
‘of the lord of the heath’s tent.’
   = God

the heath’s tent. → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

heiðar ‘of the heath’s’

3. heiðr (noun f.; °heiðar, dat./acc heiði; heiðar): heath

kennings

stillis heiðar tjalds.
‘of the lord of the heath’s tent.’
   = God

the heath’s tent. → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

kennings

stillis heiðar tjalds.
‘of the lord of the heath’s tent.’
   = God

the heath’s tent. → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

tjalds ‘tent’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

kennings

stillis heiðar tjalds.
‘of the lord of the heath’s tent.’
   = God

the heath’s tent. → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

stillis ‘of the lord’

stillir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

stillis heiðar tjalds.
‘of the lord of the heath’s tent.’
   = God

the heath’s tent. → SKY/HEAVEN
the lord of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

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