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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Harkv 9I

R. D. Fulk (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Haraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál) 9’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 103.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiHaraldskvæði (Hrafnsmál)
8910

Freistuðu ‘They tested’

freista (verb): attempt, tempt

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ins ‘the’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
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fram ‘forward’

framr (adj.; °compar. framari/fremri, superl. framastr/fremstr): outstanding, foremost < framráðr (adj.): ambitious

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
Close

ráða ‘striving’

-ráðr (adj.): -ful < framráðr (adj.): ambitious

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
Close

es ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[2] es (‘er’): at FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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flýja ‘to flee’

flýja (verb): to flee, take flight

[2] flýja: fylgja F

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vast ‘’

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all ‘mighty’

all- ((prefix)): very < allvaldr (noun m.): mighty rulerall- ((prefix)): very < allvaldr (noun m.): mighty rulerall- ((prefix)): very

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
Close

valds ‘ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler < allvaldr (noun m.): mighty ruler

[3] ‑valds: so F, 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, ‑valdr Kˣ, Flat, ‘‑vast’ J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr
Close

aust ‘’

2. austr (noun n.; °-s): the east < austmaðr (noun m.): easterner

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

notes

[3] austmanna ‘of the Norwegians’: Lit. ‘of East-men’. The context here points to Norwegians, but the term has somewhat fluctuating usage (see Fritzner: austmaðr; Notes to Þhorn Lv 1/8, Þfagr Sveinn 8/2II). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini uses austrkonungr to refer to the king of Sweden (Þjóð Yt 13/19), and austmǫrk refers to Swedish land in Yt 14/9 (if this reading from J2ˣ is correct); this has been used as an argument against his authorship of Harkv (Sueti 1884, 17).

Close

manna ‘of the Norwegians’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < austmaðr (noun m.): easterner

kennings

ins framráða allvalds austmanna,
‘the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, ’
   = NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

the forward-striving mighty ruler of the Norwegians, → NORWEGIAN KING = Haraldr

notes

[3] austmanna ‘of the Norwegians’: Lit. ‘of East-men’. The context here points to Norwegians, but the term has somewhat fluctuating usage (see Fritzner: austmaðr; Notes to Þhorn Lv 1/8, Þfagr Sveinn 8/2II). Þjóðólfr ór Hvini uses austrkonungr to refer to the king of Sweden (Þjóð Yt 13/19), and austmǫrk refers to Swedish land in Yt 14/9 (if this reading from J2ˣ is correct); this has been used as an argument against his authorship of Harkv (Sueti 1884, 17).

Close

at ‘at’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[4] at: á 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ

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Útsteini ‘Utstein’

Útsteinn (noun m.): Utsteinen, Utstein

notes

[4] Útsteini ‘Utstein’: A place north of Stavanger, Rogaland, where Haraldr gained an estate after the battle (cf. ÍF 26, 143). Hence, Haraldr rules in both the east and the west in Norway (Koht 1955, 22) and the references to Utstein here and to Kvinnar in st. 5/2 point to the peripatetic nature of early kingship. On Útsteinn, see further Note to Sigv Erlfl 5/7.

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Stóðum ‘the stud-horses’

2. stóð (noun n.; °-s): stud-horse

[5] Stóðum: so 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, stǫðum Kˣ, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, stóðu Flat

kennings

stóðum Nǫkkva,
‘the stud-horses of Nǫkkvi ’
   = SHIPS

the stud-horses of Nǫkkvi → SHIPS

notes

[5] stóðum ‘stud-horses’: I.e. groups of stallion and mares. The mss of Hkr read stǫðum (dat. pl.) ‘places’, which is adopted in most eds, and already in Munch and Unger (1847, 112). Hkr 1991 then tentatively interprets brá stǫðum nǫkkva to mean ‘changed the position of the ships’; cf. Nygaard (1875, 316), ‘launched the ship from the land’. Yet Jón Helgason (1968, 17) remarks that o in the inflectional syllable of ‘stoðom’ (and similar) in the transcripts of Fsk indicates that the root vowel intended in that text is ó not ǫ. Certainly, in any case, the root vowel in the transcripts of Fsk is consistently spelt <o>, in contrast with the Hkr forms.

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Nǫkkva ‘of Nǫkkvi’

2. Nǫkkvi (noun m.): Nǫkkvi

[5] Nǫkkva brá: nǫkkvar steindir er Flat

kennings

stóðum Nǫkkva,
‘the stud-horses of Nǫkkvi ’
   = SHIPS

the stud-horses of Nǫkkvi → SHIPS
Close

stillir ‘The ruler’

stillir (noun m.): ruler

notes

[5] stillir ‘the ruler’: Fsk 1902-3 and Skj B omit, presumably on metrical grounds.

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es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[6] es honum: átti enn Flat

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vas ‘’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[6] vas (‘var’): vôru FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, om. Flat

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glǫmmun ‘’

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hlaumon ‘’

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væni ‘expected’

vænn (adj.): beautiful, expected

[6] væni: vænni J1ˣ, J2ˣ, væns FskBˣ, nenni Flat

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hlǫmmun ‘thundering’

hlamman (noun f.): [thundering]

[7] hlǫmmun: ‘glommon’ 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, ‘hlaumon’ FskAˣ

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hlífum ‘shields’

hlíf (noun f.; °-ar; -ar): shield, defence

[7] hlífum: hlífðum 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, lofðum 301ˣ

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áðr ‘before’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

[8] áðr: áðr en 51ˣ, FskBˣ, 302ˣ, FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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Haklangr ‘Haklangr’

haklangr (noun m.): haklangr

notes

[8] Haklangr: According to Hkr (ÍF 26, 114), his full name was Þórir haklangr and he was the son of Kjǫtvi (cf. st. 7/4 and Note) and a great berserk. The epithet probably means ‘having a long chin’, though Lind (1920-1, 130-1) takes it to mean ‘tall man with hare-lip or cleft palate’. He may be the same Haklangr mentioned on a C10th rune stone from Lolland (von See 1961b, 110). Storm (1880) would instead identify him with Óláfr, son of Guðrøðr Rǫgnvaldsson, king of Dublin according to Irish sources.

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felli ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

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