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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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HSt Rst 18I

Rolf Stavnem (ed.) 2012, ‘Hallar-Steinn, Rekstefja 18’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 918.

Hallar-SteinnRekstefja
171819

Ǫrbragðs ‘of the arrow-flight’

ǫrbragð (noun n.): [arrow-flight]

kennings

Ærir ǫrbragðs
‘The messengers of the arrow-flight ’
   = WARRIORS

The messengers of the arrow-flight → WARRIORS
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ærir ‘The messengers’

1. árr (noun m.; °dat. ár; ǽrir/árar, acc. áru): messenger

[1] ærir: so Flat, œrit Bb(112ra), 54, Bb(99va), ‘errir’ 53, ‘eirir’ 325VIII 2 b

kennings

Ærir ǫrbragðs
‘The messengers of the arrow-flight ’
   = WARRIORS

The messengers of the arrow-flight → WARRIORS
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lǫgðu ‘attacked’

leggja (verb): put, lay

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sinn ‘time’

2. sinn (noun n.; °?dat. -): time

[2] sinn at Linna: ‘o[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

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at ‘with’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[2] sinn at Linna: ‘o[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

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Linna ‘Linni (‘Serpent’)’

linni (noun m.): serpent

[2] sinn at Linna: ‘o[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

notes

[2] Linna ‘Linni (“Serpent”)’: Taken here as acc. sg. of linni, referring to Óláfr’s longship Ormr inn langi ‘the Long Serpent’, mentioned by name in sts 15/5, 19/4, 21/4, 22/4, 23/4 (variant to drekinn), 29/8. It is not certain whether Linni is to be thought of as a name or a common noun here. For the skalds’ use of word-play when referring to this famous vessel, see Note to Hfr ErfÓl 10/1, and for the ship, see Note to Hókr Eirfl 3/4. Linna could also be acc. pl. of weak linni or strong linnr (also meaning serpent) and would then refer to Óláfr’s two ships Ormr inn langi and Ormr inn skammi ‘the Short Serpent’.

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grimmt ‘fierce’

grimmr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): fierce

[3] grimmt: borð 325VIII 2 b, grjót Flat

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varð ‘became’

1. verða (verb): become, be

[3] varð: við 325VIII 2 b

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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul <valkyrie>’

Gǫndul (noun f.): [Gǫndul, Göndul]

[3] Gǫndlar: so 53, 54, 325VIII 2 b, ‘gvndlat’ Bb(112ra), Bb(99va), ‘gaunnlar’ Flat

kennings

gnaust borða Gǫndlar
‘the noise of the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> → SHIELDS
the noise of SHIELDS → BATTLE
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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul <valkyrie>’

Gǫndul (noun f.): [Gǫndul, Göndul]

[3] Gǫndlar: so 53, 54, 325VIII 2 b, ‘gvndlat’ Bb(112ra), Bb(99va), ‘gaunnlar’ Flat

kennings

gnaust borða Gǫndlar
‘the noise of the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> → SHIELDS
the noise of SHIELDS → BATTLE
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borða ‘of the planks’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[3] borða: ‘borð[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

kennings

gnaust borða Gǫndlar
‘the noise of the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> → SHIELDS
the noise of SHIELDS → BATTLE
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borða ‘of the planks’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table

[3] borða: ‘borð[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

kennings

gnaust borða Gǫndlar
‘the noise of the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> → SHIELDS
the noise of SHIELDS → BATTLE
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gnaust ‘the noise’

gnaust (noun n.): [noise]

[4] gnaust: ‘[…]aust’ 325VIII 2 b

kennings

gnaust borða Gǫndlar
‘the noise of the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> ’
   = BATTLE

the planks of Gǫndul <valkyrie> → SHIELDS
the noise of SHIELDS → BATTLE
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sextigum ‘sixty’

sextigi (num. cardinal): [sixty]

[4] sextigum: lǫmðusk þar Flat

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flausta ‘ships’

flaust (noun n.): ship

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Danskr ‘Danish’

danskr (adj.): Danish

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herr ‘army’

herr (noun m.; °-s/-jar, dat. -; -jar, gen. -ja/herra): army, host

[5] herr dýran: ‘[…]rann’ 325VIII 2 b

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dýran ‘precious’

dýrr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -str/-astr): precious

[5] herr dýran: ‘[…]rann’ 325VIII 2 b

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hné ‘fell’

hníga (verb): sink, fall

[6] hné: ‘[…]’ 325VIII 2 b, hve Bb(99va)

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mǫrg ‘Many’

2. margr (adj.; °-an): many

[6] mǫrg: ‘[…]g’ 325VIII 2 b

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þars ‘where’

þars (conj.): where

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sótti ‘attacked’

sœkja (verb): seek, attack

[6] sótti: so 53, 54, 325VIII 2 b, Flat, sóttu Bb(112ra), Bb(99va)

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hirð ‘the retinue’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue

[7] hirð: hríð 54, Bb(99va)

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fell ‘fell’

falla (verb): fall

[7] fell: ‘[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

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hrafnar ‘ravens’

hrafn (noun m.; °hrafns; dat. hrafni; hrafnar): raven

[7] hrafnar: ‘[…]fn(ar)’(?) 325VIII 2 b, hafnar Bb(99va)

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gullu ‘shrieked’

gjalla (verb): to scream, shriek; to repay, return, pay for

[7] gullu: gullri 325VIII 2 b

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vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[8] vas (‘var’): er all others

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ríkstr ‘the mightiest’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[8] ríkstr: ‘rikzkzst’ 54, ‘rikzt[…]’ 325VIII 2 b

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konung ‘of royal’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king < konungmaðr (noun m.): king

[8] konung‑: konungs 53, kóng 54, ‘[...]’ 325VIII 2 b

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manna ‘men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < konungmaðr (noun m.): king

[8] ‑manna: ‘[...]’ 325VIII 2 b

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The stanza is cited as a report of King Sveinn’s attack, with sixty ships, on Óláfr Tryggvason after Óláfr sœnski has retreated.

[5-6]: Unusually and awkwardly, the subject and object of the subordinate þars-clause precede both þars ‘where’ (cf. Gade 1995a, 177) and the main clause mǫrg drótt hné ‘many a troop fell’ (cf. Kuhn 1983, 190), but there is no obvious alternative. — [8]: For this line of the refrain, see Note to st. 9/8.

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