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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 36VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 36’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 104-5.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
353637

Dóms ‘judge’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix) < dómsorð (noun n.): °sentence, judgement, verdict

notes

[1] dómsorði ‘judgement’: The cpd refers specifically to Christ’s Judgement of humanity. Cf. Fritzner: dómsorð; Lange 1958a, 148.

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orði ‘ment’

orð (noun n.; °-s; -): word < dómsorð (noun n.): °sentence, judgement, verdict

notes

[1] dómsorði ‘judgement’: The cpd refers specifically to Christ’s Judgement of humanity. Cf. Fritzner: dómsorð; Lange 1958a, 148.

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dýrðar ‘of glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

kennings

Valdr dróttar dýrðar
‘The ruler of the company of glory ’
   = God

the company of glory → ANGELS
The ruler of ANGELS → God

notes

[1-2] valdr dróttar dýrðar ‘the ruler of the company of glory [ANGELS > = God]’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) understands this phrase as han som giver mennesken hæder ‘he who gives men glory’. This seems dubious, since the cl. as a whole relates to God’s passing judgement on men. Kock (NN §2112A) prefers to take both dýrðar and dróttar as gen., forming an angel-kenning meaning ‘company of glory’ or (if dýrð ‘glory’ can be used metaphorically, as in Modern English, to mean ‘heaven’) ‘company of heaven’. The valdr ‘ruler’ of this company is God.

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dýrðar ‘of glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

kennings

Valdr dróttar dýrðar
‘The ruler of the company of glory ’
   = God

the company of glory → ANGELS
The ruler of ANGELS → God

notes

[1-2] valdr dróttar dýrðar ‘the ruler of the company of glory [ANGELS > = God]’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) understands this phrase as han som giver mennesken hæder ‘he who gives men glory’. This seems dubious, since the cl. as a whole relates to God’s passing judgement on men. Kock (NN §2112A) prefers to take both dýrðar and dróttar as gen., forming an angel-kenning meaning ‘company of glory’ or (if dýrð ‘glory’ can be used metaphorically, as in Modern English, to mean ‘heaven’) ‘company of heaven’. The valdr ‘ruler’ of this company is God.

Close

dróttar ‘of the company’

1. drótt (noun f.): troop

kennings

Valdr dróttar dýrðar
‘The ruler of the company of glory ’
   = God

the company of glory → ANGELS
The ruler of ANGELS → God

notes

[1-2] valdr dróttar dýrðar ‘the ruler of the company of glory [ANGELS > = God]’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) understands this phrase as han som giver mennesken hæder ‘he who gives men glory’. This seems dubious, since the cl. as a whole relates to God’s passing judgement on men. Kock (NN §2112A) prefers to take both dýrðar and dróttar as gen., forming an angel-kenning meaning ‘company of glory’ or (if dýrð ‘glory’ can be used metaphorically, as in Modern English, to mean ‘heaven’) ‘company of heaven’. The valdr ‘ruler’ of this company is God.

Close

dróttar ‘of the company’

1. drótt (noun f.): troop

kennings

Valdr dróttar dýrðar
‘The ruler of the company of glory ’
   = God

the company of glory → ANGELS
The ruler of ANGELS → God

notes

[1-2] valdr dróttar dýrðar ‘the ruler of the company of glory [ANGELS > = God]’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) understands this phrase as han som giver mennesken hæder ‘he who gives men glory’. This seems dubious, since the cl. as a whole relates to God’s passing judgement on men. Kock (NN §2112A) prefers to take both dýrðar and dróttar as gen., forming an angel-kenning meaning ‘company of glory’ or (if dýrð ‘glory’ can be used metaphorically, as in Modern English, to mean ‘heaven’) ‘company of heaven’. The valdr ‘ruler’ of this company is God.

Close

valdr ‘The ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

Valdr dróttar dýrðar
‘The ruler of the company of glory ’
   = God

the company of glory → ANGELS
The ruler of ANGELS → God

notes

[1-2] valdr dróttar dýrðar ‘the ruler of the company of glory [ANGELS > = God]’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) understands this phrase as han som giver mennesken hæder ‘he who gives men glory’. This seems dubious, since the cl. as a whole relates to God’s passing judgement on men. Kock (NN §2112A) prefers to take both dýrðar and dróttar as gen., forming an angel-kenning meaning ‘company of glory’ or (if dýrð ‘glory’ can be used metaphorically, as in Modern English, to mean ‘heaven’) ‘company of heaven’. The valdr ‘ruler’ of this company is God.

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þars ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

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lið ‘the host’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

kennings

lið ljóna
‘the host of men will ’
   = MANKIND

the host of men will → MANKIND
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ljóna ‘of men’

1. ljón (noun m.): lion, man

kennings

lið ljóna
‘the host of men will ’
   = MANKIND

the host of men will → MANKIND
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loks ‘finally’

loks (adv.): finally

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tvenna ‘two’

tvennr (adj.): two

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Spǫnð ‘to be drawn’

spenja (verb): entice

notes

[5] spǫnð lætr ǫll til ynðis: Cf. Pl 54/5, spanði ítr til ynðis.

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lætr ‘causes’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

notes

[5] spǫnð lætr ǫll til ynðis: Cf. Pl 54/5, spanði ítr til ynðis.

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ǫll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

notes

[5] spǫnð lætr ǫll til ynðis: Cf. Pl 54/5, spanði ítr til ynðis.

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til ‘to’

til (prep.): to

notes

[5] spǫnð lætr ǫll til ynðis: Cf. Pl 54/5, spanði ítr til ynðis.

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ynðis ‘joy’

ynði (noun n.; °-s): pleasure

notes

[5] spǫnð lætr ǫll til ynðis: Cf. Pl 54/5, spanði ítr til ynðis.

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ótt ‘without’

ótti (noun m.; °-a): fear < óttlauss (adj.): fearless

notes

[6] óttlaust af því móti: See Note on 32/4. Kock (NN §2113) suggests that óttlaust ‘without fear’ in this context acts as a meaningless filler-word, with the sense ‘certainly, assuredly’.

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laust ‘fear’

lauss (adj.; °compar. lausari): loose, free, without < óttlauss (adj.): fearless

notes

[6] óttlaust af því móti: See Note on 32/4. Kock (NN §2113) suggests that óttlaust ‘without fear’ in this context acts as a meaningless filler-word, with the sense ‘certainly, assuredly’.

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

notes

[6] óttlaust af því móti: See Note on 32/4. Kock (NN §2113) suggests that óttlaust ‘without fear’ in this context acts as a meaningless filler-word, with the sense ‘certainly, assuredly’.

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því ‘that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[6] óttlaust af því móti: See Note on 32/4. Kock (NN §2113) suggests that óttlaust ‘without fear’ in this context acts as a meaningless filler-word, with the sense ‘certainly, assuredly’.

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móti ‘gathering’

1. mót (noun n.; °; -): meeting

notes

[6] óttlaust af því móti: See Note on 32/4. Kock (NN §2113) suggests that óttlaust ‘without fear’ in this context acts as a meaningless filler-word, with the sense ‘certainly, assuredly’.

Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sunnu ‘of the sun’

sunna (noun f.): sun

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hvéls ‘of the wheel’

hvél (noun n.; °; -): wheel

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hvéls ‘of the wheel’

hvél (noun n.; °; -): wheel

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hvéls ‘of the wheel’

hvél (noun n.; °; -): wheel

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

sín ‘his’

3. sinn (pron.; °f. sín, n. sitt): (refl. poss. pron.)

notes

[8] sín bǫrn ‘his children’: The tone and phraseology recall Malachi’s prophecy of the Day of the Lord: et erunt mihi ait Dominus exercituum in die qua ego facio in peculium et parcam eis sicus parcit vir filio suo servienti sibi ‘and they shall be my special possession, saith the Lord of hosts, in the day that I do judgement: and I will spare them, as a man spareth his son that serveth him’ (Mal. III.17).

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bǫrn ‘children’

barn (noun n.; °-s; bǫrn/barn(JKr 345³), dat. bǫrnum/barnum): child

notes

[8] sín bǫrn ‘his children’: The tone and phraseology recall Malachi’s prophecy of the Day of the Lord: et erunt mihi ait Dominus exercituum in die qua ego facio in peculium et parcam eis sicus parcit vir filio suo servienti sibi ‘and they shall be my special possession, saith the Lord of hosts, in the day that I do judgement: and I will spare them, as a man spareth his son that serveth him’ (Mal. III.17).

Close

konungr ‘The king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

fjǫrnis ‘of the helmet’

fjǫrnir (noun m.): helmet

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

fjǫrnis ‘of the helmet’

fjǫrnir (noun m.): helmet

kennings

Konungr fjǫrnis hvéls sunnu
‘The king of the helmet of the wheel of the sun ’
   = God

the wheel of the sun → SUN
the helmet of the SUN → SKY/HEAVEN
The king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The division of men into two groups at the Last Judgement is a commonplace of Christian eschatology. The locus classicus is the parable of the sheep and the goats in Matt. XXV.32: et congregabuntur ante eum omnes gentes et separabit eos ab invicem sicut pastor segregat oves ab hedis ‘and all nations shall be gathered together before him, and he shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats’. The same idea is expressed in Arnórr jarlaskáld’s helmingr on the Last Judgement mentioned in the Note to st. 33/2-3.

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