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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 34VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 34’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 102-3.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
333435

at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[1] at: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘[...]t’ B

Close

fœrim ‘will advance’

2. fœra (verb): bring

Close

glammi ‘a babble’

glammi (noun m.): babble

Close

dáð ‘deed’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed < dáðgeymir (noun m.)

kennings

dýrðargjarns dáðgeymis,
‘of the glory-eager deed-guardian, ’
   = God

the glory-eager deed-guardian, → God
Close

geymis ‘guardian’

geymir (noun m.): guardian, keeper < dáðgeymir (noun m.)

kennings

dýrðargjarns dáðgeymis,
‘of the glory-eager deed-guardian, ’
   = God

the glory-eager deed-guardian, → God
Close

mi ‘the Judgement’

dómr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): judgement; court; -dom, -ness (suffix)

[3] mi: ‘[...]e’ B, ‘(do)me’(?) 399a‑bˣ

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dýrðar ‘of the glory-’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory < dýrðargjarn (adj.): glory-eager

[4] dýrðar‑: dýrð B

kennings

dýrðargjarns dáðgeymis,
‘of the glory-eager deed-guardian, ’
   = God

the glory-eager deed-guardian, → God

notes

[4] dýrðar: It has not been possible to make sense of B’s reading dýrð nom. sg. or acc. sing. of dýrð ‘glory’. Emendation to the gen. sg. dýrðar was suggested by Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 24), and has been adopted by all subsequent eds.

Close

gjarns ‘eager’

gjarn (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): eager < dýrðargjarn (adj.): glory-eager

kennings

dýrðargjarns dáðgeymis,
‘of the glory-eager deed-guardian, ’
   = God

the glory-eager deed-guardian, → God
Close

varnir ‘our defences’

vǫrn (noun f.; °varnar; varnir): defence

[4] varnir: so 399a‑bˣ, BFJ, ‘[...]’ B, (varnir)(?) BRydberg

Close

áðr ‘previously’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

[5] áðr ef: ‘[...]r ef’ B, ‘[...]dr ef’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, ‘(e)ndr ef’(?) BFJ

notes

[5] áðr ef eigi réðum: The ms. is very badly worn at this point (fol. 13r, l. 7), and it has been very difficult to read this l. Although in Skj A he reads rendum with certainty, Finnur Jónsson in Skj B follows Kempff in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggestion (1844, 24 n. 25), that the l. should read endr ef eigi vendum. The endr : vendum reconstruction, however, gives an aðalhending, rather than the expected skothending. The final word, ‘re᷎dum’, is legible on ultra-violet photographs, and is confirmed by Rydberg’s transcription. Although the first word is now illegible, apart from the final r, Rydberg read ‘…dr’ with certainty, and believed he saw traces of an initial a (1907, 26 n. 4). Jón Helgason (1935-6, 258) accepts Rydberg’s reading, though he points out that ræðum (dat. pl.) ‘speeches’, which would be the usual interpretion of what appears to be hooked ‘e’, is hardly appropriate in the context. As Jón points out, however, there are several instances where the scribe writes a curved accent which is easily mistaken for a hook. If we take this to be the case here, the l. becomes áðr ef eigi réðum. Although the expression ráða til sætta við e-n ‘to make peace with someone’ is not found elsewhere, Jón Helgason cites ráða til saka við e-n (Fritzner: ráða til 4.) ‘to blame someone’ as a close parallel. The first word of l. 5 has been taken as either endr (so Kempff and Skj B), following a suggestion of Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 24 n. 45), or áðr (so Rydberg, Jón Helgason, Kock, Black, Attwood 1996a and here).

Close

ef ‘if’

3. ef (conj.): if

[5] áðr ef: ‘[...]r ef’ B, ‘[...]dr ef’ 399a‑bˣ, BRydberg, ‘(e)ndr ef’(?) BFJ

notes

[5] áðr ef eigi réðum: The ms. is very badly worn at this point (fol. 13r, l. 7), and it has been very difficult to read this l. Although in Skj A he reads rendum with certainty, Finnur Jónsson in Skj B follows Kempff in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggestion (1844, 24 n. 25), that the l. should read endr ef eigi vendum. The endr : vendum reconstruction, however, gives an aðalhending, rather than the expected skothending. The final word, ‘re᷎dum’, is legible on ultra-violet photographs, and is confirmed by Rydberg’s transcription. Although the first word is now illegible, apart from the final r, Rydberg read ‘…dr’ with certainty, and believed he saw traces of an initial a (1907, 26 n. 4). Jón Helgason (1935-6, 258) accepts Rydberg’s reading, though he points out that ræðum (dat. pl.) ‘speeches’, which would be the usual interpretion of what appears to be hooked ‘e’, is hardly appropriate in the context. As Jón points out, however, there are several instances where the scribe writes a curved accent which is easily mistaken for a hook. If we take this to be the case here, the l. becomes áðr ef eigi réðum. Although the expression ráða til sætta við e-n ‘to make peace with someone’ is not found elsewhere, Jón Helgason cites ráða til saka við e-n (Fritzner: ráða til 4.) ‘to blame someone’ as a close parallel. The first word of l. 5 has been taken as either endr (so Kempff and Skj B), following a suggestion of Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 24 n. 45), or áðr (so Rydberg, Jón Helgason, Kock, Black, Attwood 1996a and here).

Close

eigi ‘not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

notes

[5] áðr ef eigi réðum: The ms. is very badly worn at this point (fol. 13r, l. 7), and it has been very difficult to read this l. Although in Skj A he reads rendum with certainty, Finnur Jónsson in Skj B follows Kempff in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggestion (1844, 24 n. 25), that the l. should read endr ef eigi vendum. The endr : vendum reconstruction, however, gives an aðalhending, rather than the expected skothending. The final word, ‘re᷎dum’, is legible on ultra-violet photographs, and is confirmed by Rydberg’s transcription. Although the first word is now illegible, apart from the final r, Rydberg read ‘…dr’ with certainty, and believed he saw traces of an initial a (1907, 26 n. 4). Jón Helgason (1935-6, 258) accepts Rydberg’s reading, though he points out that ræðum (dat. pl.) ‘speeches’, which would be the usual interpretion of what appears to be hooked ‘e’, is hardly appropriate in the context. As Jón points out, however, there are several instances where the scribe writes a curved accent which is easily mistaken for a hook. If we take this to be the case here, the l. becomes áðr ef eigi réðum. Although the expression ráða til sætta við e-n ‘to make peace with someone’ is not found elsewhere, Jón Helgason cites ráða til saka við e-n (Fritzner: ráða til 4.) ‘to blame someone’ as a close parallel. The first word of l. 5 has been taken as either endr (so Kempff and Skj B), following a suggestion of Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 24 n. 45), or áðr (so Rydberg, Jón Helgason, Kock, Black, Attwood 1996a and here).

Close

réðum ‘made’

ráða (verb): advise, rule, interpret, decide

[5] réðum (‘re᷎dum’): ‘rẹndum’(?) 399a‑bˣ, ‘ræ᷎dum’ BRydberg, rendum BFJ

notes

[5] áðr ef eigi réðum: The ms. is very badly worn at this point (fol. 13r, l. 7), and it has been very difficult to read this l. Although in Skj A he reads rendum with certainty, Finnur Jónsson in Skj B follows Kempff in adopting Sveinbjörn Egilsson’s suggestion (1844, 24 n. 25), that the l. should read endr ef eigi vendum. The endr : vendum reconstruction, however, gives an aðalhending, rather than the expected skothending. The final word, ‘re᷎dum’, is legible on ultra-violet photographs, and is confirmed by Rydberg’s transcription. Although the first word is now illegible, apart from the final r, Rydberg read ‘…dr’ with certainty, and believed he saw traces of an initial a (1907, 26 n. 4). Jón Helgason (1935-6, 258) accepts Rydberg’s reading, though he points out that ræðum (dat. pl.) ‘speeches’, which would be the usual interpretion of what appears to be hooked ‘e’, is hardly appropriate in the context. As Jón points out, however, there are several instances where the scribe writes a curved accent which is easily mistaken for a hook. If we take this to be the case here, the l. becomes áðr ef eigi réðum. Although the expression ráða til sætta við e-n ‘to make peace with someone’ is not found elsewhere, Jón Helgason cites ráða til saka við e-n (Fritzner: ráða til 4.) ‘to blame someone’ as a close parallel. The first word of l. 5 has been taken as either endr (so Kempff and Skj B), following a suggestion of Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 24 n. 45), or áðr (so Rydberg, Jón Helgason, Kock, Black, Attwood 1996a and here).

Close

aldar ‘of men’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

kennings

gram aldarkyns;
‘the prince of the race of men; ’
   = God

the race of men; → MANKIND
the prince of the MANKIND → God
Close

aldar ‘of men’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

kennings

gram aldarkyns;
‘the prince of the race of men; ’
   = God

the race of men; → MANKIND
the prince of the MANKIND → God
Close

kyns ‘of the race’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin

kennings

gram aldarkyns;
‘the prince of the race of men; ’
   = God

the race of men; → MANKIND
the prince of the MANKIND → God
Close

kyns ‘of the race’

1. kyn (noun n.; °-s; -): kin

kennings

gram aldarkyns;
‘the prince of the race of men; ’
   = God

the race of men; → MANKIND
the prince of the MANKIND → God
Close

heldr ‘rather’

heldr (adv.): rather

Close

gram ‘the prince’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

gram aldarkyns;
‘the prince of the race of men; ’
   = God

the race of men; → MANKIND
the prince of the MANKIND → God
Close

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