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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 6I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 290.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
567

odd ‘arrow’

oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon < oddneytir (noun m.)oddr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): point of weapon

[1] odd‑: óð‑ J1ˣ, J2ˣ

kennings

eiðvandr oddneytir,
‘the oath-true arrow-user, ’
   = WARRIOR

the oath-true arrow-user, → WARRIOR
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nexstir ‘’

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neyðir ‘’

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neytir ‘user’

neytir (noun m.): user < oddneytir (noun m.)neytir (noun m.): user < óðneytir (noun m.)

[1] ‑neytir: ‑neyðir J1ˣ, ‘‑nexstir’ 325IX 1 a, Bb

kennings

eiðvandr oddneytir,
‘the oath-true arrow-user, ’
   = WARRIOR

the oath-true arrow-user, → WARRIOR
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úti ‘out’

úti (adv.): out, outdoors, out at sea, abroad

[1] úti: ýti 61, ‘vt[...]’ 325IX 1 a

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eið ‘the oath’

eið (noun n.; °-s; -): ?oath/headland < eiðvandr (adj.)

[2] eiðvandr flota: ‘[...]a’ 325IX 1 a

kennings

eiðvandr oddneytir,
‘the oath-true arrow-user, ’
   = WARRIOR

the oath-true arrow-user, → WARRIOR
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vandr ‘true’

vandr (adj.): difficult < eiðvandr (adj.)

[2] eiðvandr flota: ‘[...]a’ 325IX 1 a

kennings

eiðvandr oddneytir,
‘the oath-true arrow-user, ’
   = WARRIOR

the oath-true arrow-user, → WARRIOR
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flota ‘fleet’

floti (noun m.): fleet

[2] eiðvandr flota: ‘[...]a’ 325IX 1 a

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breiðan ‘a great’

breiðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): broad, wide

[2, 3] breiðan glaðr í: ‘(b)rei[...] glad[...]’(?) 325IX 1 a

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glaðr ‘glad’

2. glaðr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): cheerful, glad

[2, 3] breiðan glaðr í: ‘(b)rei[...] glad[...]’(?) 325IX 1 a

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[2, 3] breiðan glaðr í: ‘(b)rei[...] glad[...]’(?) 325IX 1 a

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Gǫndlar ‘of Gǫndul’

Gǫndul (noun f.): [Gǫndul, Göndul]

kennings

veðrum Gǫndlar,
‘the winds of Gǫndul, ’
   = BATTLES

the winds of Gǫndul, → BATTLES
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veiðrum ‘’

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veðrum ‘the winds’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

[3] veðrum: ‘veiðrum’ J1ˣ

kennings

veðrum Gǫndlar,
‘the winds of Gǫndul, ’
   = BATTLES

the winds of Gǫndul, → BATTLES
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gramr ‘the ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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hafði ‘had’

hafa (verb): have

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rauð ‘of the red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red < rauðmáni (noun m.)

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

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rauð ‘of the red’

rauðr (adj.; °compar. -ari): red < rauðmáni (noun m.)

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

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mána ‘moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon < rauðmáni (noun m.)

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

mána ‘moon’

máni (noun m.; °-a): moon < rauðmáni (noun m.)

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

reynir ‘the tester’

2. reynir (noun m.): tester

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

róg ‘the strife’

róg (noun n.; °-s): strife, slander < rógsegl (noun n.)

kennings

rógsegl
‘the strife-sail ’
   = SHIELD

the strife-sail → SHIELD
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segl ‘sail’

segl (noun n.; °-s; -): sail < rógsegl (noun n.)

kennings

rógsegl
‘the strife-sail ’
   = SHIELD

the strife-sail → SHIELD
Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

bega ‘’

Close

bóga ‘of the arm’

bógr (noun m.; °dat. bǿgi; bǿgir, acc. bógu): shoulder

[6] bóga: so 39, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, ‘bogra’ Kˣ, ‘boga’ 325IX 1 a, ‘bega’ Bb

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

bóga ‘of the arm’

bógr (noun m.; °dat. bǿgi; bǿgir, acc. bógu): shoulder

[6] bóga: so 39, F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, ‘bogra’ Kˣ, ‘boga’ 325IX 1 a, ‘bega’ Bb

kennings

reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins
‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the red moon of the arm of Heðinn → SHIELD
the tester of the SHIELD → WARRIOR

notes

[5, 6] reynir rauðmána bóga Heðins ‘the tester of the red moon of the arm of Heðinn <legendary hero> [SHIELD > WARRIOR]’: It is impossible to decide whether reynir, the base-word of the kenning, should be translated as ‘tester’ or as its homonym ‘rowan tree’, because both result in a standard warrior-kenning (‘tester of the sword’ or ‘tree of the sword’; see Meissner 299, and cf. SnE 1998, I, 40, 148).

Close

jǫfra ‘of rulers’

jǫfurr (noun m.): ruler, prince

notes

[7] kappi jǫfra ‘with the vigour of rulers’: (a) This edn, with almost all others, takes the dat. kappi ‘with vigour’ with the verb hóf upp ‘raised’. Kappi is interpreted as an instr. dat. or dat. of manner, of which there are prose examples involving abstract nouns (NS §110), though these normally occur in specific circumstances which are not precisely matched here. The jǫfra (gen. pl.) ‘rulers’ are unidentified but could be Hákon’s supporters, or jǫfra could be an adjectival gen., ‘lordly’, as jarla seems to be in Arn Mdr 5/1II orðgnótt jarla ‘lordly wealth of words’. (b) Jǫfra could be taken with etjulund, but this entails separating jǫfra and kappi, which are consecutive and form a natural phrasal unit. (c) In order to avoid such separation, Kock (NN §1826) takes kappi as a variation of etjulund ‘inclination for strife’, both being dat. objects of setja in the sense ‘to settle, calm, allay’. However, the suggestion is unconvincing because apposition like this is rare in skaldic style (tellingly Kock only produces WGmc parallels). Moreover, Kock claims setja máli as a parallel, but that means ‘to settle a dispute’ (Fritzner: setja 4), whereas here setja would mean ‘to calm an emotion’ (Fritzner: setja 5), and would be construed with the acc.

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kappi ‘with the vigour’

1. kappi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): champion

notes

[7] kappi jǫfra ‘with the vigour of rulers’: (a) This edn, with almost all others, takes the dat. kappi ‘with vigour’ with the verb hóf upp ‘raised’. Kappi is interpreted as an instr. dat. or dat. of manner, of which there are prose examples involving abstract nouns (NS §110), though these normally occur in specific circumstances which are not precisely matched here. The jǫfra (gen. pl.) ‘rulers’ are unidentified but could be Hákon’s supporters, or jǫfra could be an adjectival gen., ‘lordly’, as jarla seems to be in Arn Mdr 5/1II orðgnótt jarla ‘lordly wealth of words’. (b) Jǫfra could be taken with etjulund, but this entails separating jǫfra and kappi, which are consecutive and form a natural phrasal unit. (c) In order to avoid such separation, Kock (NN §1826) takes kappi as a variation of etjulund ‘inclination for strife’, both being dat. objects of setja in the sense ‘to settle, calm, allay’. However, the suggestion is unconvincing because apposition like this is rare in skaldic style (tellingly Kock only produces WGmc parallels). Moreover, Kock claims setja máli as a parallel, but that means ‘to settle a dispute’ (Fritzner: setja 4), whereas here setja would mean ‘to calm an emotion’ (Fritzner: setja 5), and would be construed with the acc.

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setja ‘calm’

setja (verb): place, set, establish

[8] setja: segja at segja J1ˣ, segja J2ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

After the death of Sigurðr jarl, his son Hákon is able to hold on to power in Þrándheimr (Trøndelag) for three years with the help of his friends. He fights several battles against the Eiríkssynir (Gunnhildarsynir), at which many are killed. Hkr cites sts 6-8 in unbroken sequence; ÓT inserts a brief link between sts 6 and 7.

[1-4]: There have been various opinions as to how l. 3 relates to the main and intercalary clauses of the first helmingr. (a) In this edn, the intercalary clause consists only of gramr svafði bil ‘the ruler ended delay’ (l. 4; cf. NN §393; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991); Kock (NN §1825) collected many examples of this kind of division of the fourth line. Line 3, glaðr í veðrum Gǫndlar is taken as part of the main clause, qualifying oddneytir, hence ‘the arrow-user [WARRIOR], glad in the winds of Gǫndul [BATTLES]’ (following Konráð Gíslason 1895-7, I, 105-6). Keeping the same arrangement of clauses, ‘in the winds of Gǫndul’ might instead be taken as a prepositional phrase meaning that the ruler had deployed his fleet in battle (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B; ÍF 26; Hkr 1991), but this is less likely because it would have to be linked to úti ‘out at sea’ in l. 1. Alternative clause arrangements are as follows. (b) The intercalary clause could comprise glaðr gramr svafði bil í veðrum Gǫndlar ‘the glad ruler ended delay in the winds of Gǫndul [BATTLES]’ (Fms 12; Vell 1865, 8; CPB II, 44; Reichardt 1928, 10-12). The meaning of this is problematic because, at the time of battle, any delay has already been overcome. Moreover, the syntax and word order would hardly be acceptable. (c) The intercalary clause could comprise glaðr gramr svafði bil ‘the glad ruler ended delay’ (Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B). Whereas Kock (NN §§393, 1825) rejects this version because of its convoluted word order, Reichardt (1928, 11) thinks it more poetic.

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