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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Arn Hryn 5II

Diana Whaley (ed.) 2009, ‘Arnórr jarlaskáld Þórðarson, Hrynhenda, Magnússdrápa 5’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 189-90.

Arnórr jarlaskáld ÞórðarsonHrynhenda, Magnússdrápa
456

síðan ‘Next’

síðan (adv.): later, then

[1] síðan: síðar 61

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rimmu ‘of battle’

rimma (noun f.; °-u): battle

[2] rimmu: ‘rymmu’ J2ˣ, runnar 73aˣ

kennings

Yggr rimmu,
‘Yggr of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR

Yggr of battle, → WARRIOR
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Yggr ‘Yggr’

1. Yggr (noun m.): Yggr

[2] Yggr: ‘ygr’ F, 325VI, Holm4, ‘ygs’ Tóm

kennings

Yggr rimmu,
‘Yggr of battle, ’
   = WARRIOR

Yggr of battle, → WARRIOR
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of ‘through’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[2] of (‘um’): í E, J2ˣ, Holm2, 972ˣ, 325VI, 73aˣ, Holm4, 325VII, 325V, 61, Bb, Tóm, Hr

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sœnskar ‘Swedish’

sœnskr (adj.): Swedish

[2] sœnskar: ‘sonskar’ J2ˣ, þrœnskar 73aˣ

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liðskost ‘pick of troops’

liðskostr (noun m.): [pick of troops]

[3] liðskost: liðkost Holm4, 61, Tóm, ‘lidskot’ Bb

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landsfolk ‘the men of the land’

landsfolk (noun n.): people of the country

[4] landsfolk: landfolk F, Holm2, 61, Bb, land her 325VI, 73aˣ, Hr

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sótti ‘put themselves’

sœkja (verb): seek, attack

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Austan ‘from the east’

austan (adv.): from the east

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þurðuð ‘you swept’

1. þverra (verb): diminish

[5] þurðuð (‘þurþut’): þurðusk J2ˣ, þorðut 73aˣ, 325VII, 325V, 61, Hr, ‘þyrdvt’ Bb

notes

[5] þurðuð ‘you swept’: 2nd pers. pl. pret. indic. of þyrja. As the only verb in the helmingr, this must be construed as predicate to nom. pl. teknir menn ‘men chosen’ (l. 8, see Note below).

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ulfa ‘of wolves’

1. ulfr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): wolf

[5] ulfa: umla Tóm

kennings

Tungurjóðr ferðar ulfa, kunnr ǫldum,
‘Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, ’
   = WARRIOR

Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, → WARRIOR
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ferðar ‘of the pack’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[5] ferðar: skerðir 61, ferðir Bb

kennings

Tungurjóðr ferðar ulfa, kunnr ǫldum,
‘Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, ’
   = WARRIOR

Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, → WARRIOR
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ǫldum ‘to peoples’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

[6] ǫldum: ‘olldu’ 61

kennings

Tungurjóðr ferðar ulfa, kunnr ǫldum,
‘Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, ’
   = WARRIOR

Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, → WARRIOR
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kunnr ‘renowned’

kunnr (adj.): known (?)

kennings

Tungurjóðr ferðar ulfa, kunnr ǫldum,
‘Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, ’
   = WARRIOR

Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, → WARRIOR
Close

með ‘with’

með (prep.): with

[6] með: yfir 61, yfir 61, við Hr

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skjǫldu ‘shields’

skjǫldr (noun m.; °skjaldar/skildar, dat. skildi; skildir, acc. skjǫldu): shield

[6] skjǫldu: ‘sceylldu’(?) Holm2

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tungu ‘Tongue’

tunga (noun f.; °-u; -ur): tongue, language < tungurjóðr (noun m.): tongue-reddener

[7] tungu‑: tuggu‑ 325V

kennings

Tungurjóðr ferðar ulfa, kunnr ǫldum,
‘Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, ’
   = WARRIOR

Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, → WARRIOR
Close

rjóðr ‘reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener < tungurjóðr (noun m.): tongue-reddener

kennings

Tungurjóðr ferðar ulfa, kunnr ǫldum,
‘Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, ’
   = WARRIOR

Tongue-reddener of the pack of wolves, renowned to peoples, → WARRIOR
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til ‘for’

til (prep.): to

[7] til: með 325VI, 73aˣ, yfir 61

notes

[7] til tírarþinga ‘for glorious encounters’: (a) Although similar in construction to a kenning, tírarþing is not a true kenning. Þing can stand alone in the sense ‘battle’ (as in Sigv Víkv 11/3I, the only sure example), and tírar ‘of glory’ has here an adjectival rather than substantival role. (b) The variant tirrar is secondary, since preserved only in the unreliable Bb, but it could be gen. sg. of a rare word for ‘sword’ (see Whaley 1998, 154).

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tírar ‘glorious’

tírr (noun m.; °-s): glory, honour < tírarþing (noun n.)

[7] tírar‑: ‘tirrar’ Bb

notes

[7] til tírarþinga ‘for glorious encounters’: (a) Although similar in construction to a kenning, tírarþing is not a true kenning. Þing can stand alone in the sense ‘battle’ (as in Sigv Víkv 11/3I, the only sure example), and tírar ‘of glory’ has here an adjectival rather than substantival role. (b) The variant tirrar is secondary, since preserved only in the unreliable Bb, but it could be gen. sg. of a rare word for ‘sword’ (see Whaley 1998, 154).

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þinga ‘ encounters’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < tírarþing (noun n.)

[7] ‑þinga: þingum 325VI, 73aˣ, unga 325VII, Tóm, ungrar 61

notes

[7] til tírarþinga ‘for glorious encounters’: (a) Although similar in construction to a kenning, tírarþing is not a true kenning. Þing can stand alone in the sense ‘battle’ (as in Sigv Víkv 11/3I, the only sure example), and tírar ‘of glory’ has here an adjectival rather than substantival role. (b) The variant tirrar is secondary, since preserved only in the unreliable Bb, but it could be gen. sg. of a rare word for ‘sword’ (see Whaley 1998, 154).

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teknir ‘chosen’

2. taka (verb): take

notes

[8] menn teknir ‘men chosen’: No recorded use of taka/tekinn, normally ‘take/taken’ suits the present context, but two meanings of taka til are possible if teknir til tírarþinga are construed together. (a) ‘Choose, elect’ occurs, completed either by the name of a position such as konungs ‘king’ or frillu ‘mistress’, by a more abstract term such as gerðar ‘arbitration’, or by an at-cl. (Fritzner: taka til 9). This seems to give the best sense in the present context, although it is not specified by whom Magnús and company are ‘chosen’: presumably God or an abstract destiny. This is Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation in Skj B. Kock accepts the sense ‘chosen’ for teknir, but does not construe it with til tírarþinga, which he takes rather with þurðu ‘rushed’ (NN §1133). (b) Teknir til tírarþinga could alternatively mean ‘famed for glorious encounters’, since taka e-n, e-s til e-s can refer to reputation, as in Hann var til þess tekinn, at honum var verra til hjóna en ǫðrum mǫnnum ‘He had the reputation of being worse off for servants than others’, Grettis saga (Gr, ch. 30, ÍF 7, 101, quoted in Fritzner: taka til 10).

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menn ‘men’

maðr (noun m.): man, person

notes

[8] menn teknir ‘men chosen’: No recorded use of taka/tekinn, normally ‘take/taken’ suits the present context, but two meanings of taka til are possible if teknir til tírarþinga are construed together. (a) ‘Choose, elect’ occurs, completed either by the name of a position such as konungs ‘king’ or frillu ‘mistress’, by a more abstract term such as gerðar ‘arbitration’, or by an at-cl. (Fritzner: taka til 9). This seems to give the best sense in the present context, although it is not specified by whom Magnús and company are ‘chosen’: presumably God or an abstract destiny. This is Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation in Skj B. Kock accepts the sense ‘chosen’ for teknir, but does not construe it with til tírarþinga, which he takes rather with þurðu ‘rushed’ (NN §1133). (b) Teknir til tírarþinga could alternatively mean ‘famed for glorious encounters’, since taka e-n, e-s til e-s can refer to reputation, as in Hann var til þess tekinn, at honum var verra til hjóna en ǫðrum mǫnnum ‘He had the reputation of being worse off for servants than others’, Grettis saga (Gr, ch. 30, ÍF 7, 101, quoted in Fritzner: taka til 10).

Close

ok ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

[8] ok: með Holm4, en 61

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dǫrr ‘spears’

dǫrr (noun m.): spear

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reknu ‘inlaid’

2. reka (verb): drive, force

[8] reknu: rekna 61

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In ÓH and Hkr, Snorri prefaces the st. by a comment that Magnús and his force went overland to Hälsingland (Helsingjaland). In H-Hr, the st. follows Hryn 4, separated only by a remark on the support Magnús won in Sweden.

The source poem is named as (dat. sg. following í) ‘hermandini’ (variants ‘hryniandini’, ‘hryneande’) in ÓH and as ‘hrunhendu’ in Hr. — [3-4]: Arnórr’s reference to the Swedes’ willing support of Magnús is illuminated by Sigv Ást 1-3I, in which the skald praises Ástríðr, widow of Óláfr helgi, for generously helping her stepson Magnús to win Norway. She put his case to a great force of Swedes, assembled at Hangrar (unidentified p. n.), near Sigtuna (Sigtún), and (presumably) won them over.

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