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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Pl 7VII

Jonna Louis-Jensen and Tarrin Wills (eds) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Plácitusdrápa 7’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 186-7.

Anonymous PoemsPlácitusdrápa
678

unnar ‘of the wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave

kennings

unnar elg-Þróttr
‘the elk-Þróttr of the wave’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of the wave → SHIP
the Þróttr of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

unnar ‘of the wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave

kennings

unnar elg-Þróttr
‘the elk-Þróttr of the wave’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of the wave → SHIP
the Þróttr of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

elg ‘of the elk’

elgr (noun m.; °-s; -ir/-ar): elk < elgþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

unnar elg-Þróttr
‘the elk-Þróttr of the wave’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of the wave → SHIP
the Þróttr of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

elg ‘of the elk’

elgr (noun m.; °-s; -ir/-ar): elk < elgþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

unnar elg-Þróttr
‘the elk-Þróttr of the wave’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of the wave → SHIP
the Þróttr of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

Þróttr ‘the Þróttr’

2. Þróttr (noun m.): Þróttr < elgþróttr (noun m.)

kennings

unnar elg-Þróttr
‘the elk-Þróttr of the wave’
   = SEAFARER

the elk of the wave → SHIP
the Þróttr of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

flærðar ‘of falsehood’

flærð (noun f.): falsehood, deceit

kennings

framlyndum þverri flærðar.
‘to the brave diminisher of falsehood. ’
   = HOLY MAN

to the brave diminisher of falsehood. → HOLY MAN
Close

þverri ‘diminisher’

þverrir (noun m.): dminisher

kennings

framlyndum þverri flærðar.
‘to the brave diminisher of falsehood. ’
   = HOLY MAN

to the brave diminisher of falsehood. → HOLY MAN
Close

fram ‘’

fram (adv.): out, forth, forwards, away < framlyndr (adj.): ambitious

[4] framlyndum: ‘framlund[...]’ 673b, framlyndum 673bÞH

kennings

framlyndum þverri flærðar.
‘to the brave diminisher of falsehood. ’
   = HOLY MAN

to the brave diminisher of falsehood. → HOLY MAN
Close

lyndum ‘to the brave’

lyndr (adj.; °superl. -astr): minded < framlyndr (adj.): ambitious

[4] framlyndum: ‘framlund[...]’ 673b, framlyndum 673bÞH

kennings

framlyndum þverri flærðar.
‘to the brave diminisher of falsehood. ’
   = HOLY MAN

to the brave diminisher of falsehood. → HOLY MAN
Close

goð ‘God’

1. guð (noun m.; °***guðrs, guðis, gus): (Christian) God

[4] goð: om. 673b

notes

[4] goð ‘God’: This emendation was proposed by Sveinbjörn Egilsson. It reflects the wording of the C version of the saga: enn um morguninn fór Evst(asius) til þess sama stadar sem gud hafdi ádur vitr[ast honum ...] (Tucker 1998, 23) ‘and the next day Eustace went to the same place where God had previously appeared to him’.

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sýndisk ‘had shown himself’

sýna (verb): show, seem

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Sann ‘The true’

2. sannr (adj.; °-an; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): true < sannhugguðr (noun m.)

kennings

Sannhugguðr hauks,
‘The true comforter of the hawk, ’
   = WARRIOR

The true comforter of the hawk, → WARRIOR
Close

hugguðr ‘comforter’

(non-lexical) < sannhugguðr (noun m.)

kennings

Sannhugguðr hauks,
‘The true comforter of the hawk, ’
   = WARRIOR

The true comforter of the hawk, → WARRIOR
Close

seggja ‘of men’

seggr (noun m.; °; -ir): man

kennings

hirðvandan gram seggja
‘the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, ’
   = God

the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, → God
Close

hauks ‘of the hawk’

1. haukr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): hawk

kennings

Sannhugguðr hauks,
‘The true comforter of the hawk, ’
   = WARRIOR

The true comforter of the hawk, → WARRIOR

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

Close

í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

Close

líki ‘the shape’

1. lík (noun n.; °-s; -): body, shape

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

Close

hirð ‘retainers’

hirð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-ar(FskB— 53‡)): retinue < hirðvandr (adj.)

kennings

hirðvandan gram seggja
‘the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, ’
   = God

the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, → God

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

Close

vandan ‘careful chooser of his’

vandr (adj.): difficult < hirðvandr (adj.)

[8] ‑vandan: ‑vandin 673b, bandin 673bÞH

kennings

hirðvandan gram seggja
‘the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, ’
   = God

the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, → God

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

Close

gram ‘the ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

kennings

hirðvandan gram seggja
‘the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, ’
   = God

the ruler of men, careful chooser of his retainers, → God

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

Close

standa ‘standing’

standa (verb): stand

notes

[7-8]: Cf. the wording of the C text síndist honum hann þar kominn í hiartarmind þeirri ‘he [God] appeared to him to have come there in the form of the hart’ (Louis-Jensen 1998, cxxii). The alliterating á hamri ‘on a cliff’ (l. 6) reflects the demands of the poetic form and is based on the location of Plácitus’s vision on a mountain (mons) in the Lat. text (cf. the A version’s fjall). The symbolic significance of the hart was particularly appropriate to the legend of the Christian convert Plácitus and would have been well understood by the poet and audience of Pl. On the one hand, the hart panting for cooling streams mentioned in Ps. XLII.1 was understood to represent the soul saved through baptism, and, on the other, the hart who tramples a serpent was understood as a type of Christ overcoming Satan according to the Physiologus. If 673b was originally part of a compilation together with 673a, there would have been a thematic connection between Pl and the Physiologus text in 673a, which includes the hart among the animals whose allegorical meaning is expounded (Halldórr Hermansson 1938, 20).

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

According to the Eustace legend, the morning after Plácitus and his family had been baptised, Plácitus went back to the place where he had first encountered the Christ-hart, and was granted a second vision. It is at this point that Christ tells him that he must be tried for his faith.

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