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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þloft Tøgdr 5I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Tøgdrápa 5’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 858.

Þórarinn loftungaTøgdrápa
456

Knôttu ‘’

knega (verb): to know, understand, be able to

[1] Knôttu: ‘Knattu⸜ð⸝’ 61, Flat, ‘K[…]ttv’ 325XI 2 g, ‘Knauttud’ Tóm

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súðir ‘planks’

súð (noun f.; °-ar; gen. -a): planking, ship

[1] súðir: suðr 68, 325VII

notes

[1] súðir ‘planks’: On this term see Jesch (2001a, 139-40).

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svangs ‘of the hull’

1. svangr (noun m.): [hull]

[2] svangs: svans 325XI 2 g, svang DG8

notes

[2] svangs ‘of the hull’: (a) Following ÍF 27, this preserves the ms. form by interpreting svangs as gen. sg. of *svangr, a strong variant of svangi, ‘(taut) belly’, and assuming that this qualifies súðir ‘planks’. The same approach is taken by CVC: svangi, which suggests ‘belly-boards’ for the phrase. (b) Skj B and Skald both emend to svǫng (n. nom. pl. adj.) ‘slim, slender’ agreeing with brimdýr ‘sea-animals [SHIPS]’. Though giving excellent sense, this has no ms. support.

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byr ‘The wind’

byrr (noun m.; °-jar/-s; -ir, acc. -i/-u(SigrVal 188¹³)): favourable wind < byrrammr (adj.)

kennings

Byrrǫmm brimdýr
‘The wind-strong surf-animals ’
   = SHIPS

The wind-strong surf-animals → SHIPS

notes

[3] byrrǫmm ‘wind-strong’: A number of scribes have interpreted the second element of this cpd as raukn ‘draught animal(s)’, thus producing a kenning for ‘ships’ (cf., e.g., borðraukn ‘gunwale-animal’, sundraukn ‘inlet-animal’ in LP). Kock (Skald; NN §2016) also prefers this reading, construing byrraukn ‘wind-beasts’ in apposition to brimdýr ‘sea-animals’.

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rǫmm ‘strong’

rammr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): mighty < byrrammr (adj.)

[3] ‑rǫmm: raukn Bæb, Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Tóm, 301ˣmarg, raun 68, ‘ra⸜o⸝kn’ 61, ‘rav[…]’ 325XI 2 g, ‘roknn’ Flat, ‘ronn’ DG8

kennings

Byrrǫmm brimdýr
‘The wind-strong surf-animals ’
   = SHIPS

The wind-strong surf-animals → SHIPS

notes

[3] byrrǫmm ‘wind-strong’: A number of scribes have interpreted the second element of this cpd as raukn ‘draught animal(s)’, thus producing a kenning for ‘ships’ (cf., e.g., borðraukn ‘gunwale-animal’, sundraukn ‘inlet-animal’ in LP). Kock (Skald; NN §2016) also prefers this reading, construing byrraukn ‘wind-beasts’ in apposition to brimdýr ‘sea-animals’.

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bera ‘brought’

3. bera (verb; °berr; bar, báru; borinn): bear, carry

[3] bera: ‘[…]’ 325XI 2 g

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brim ‘surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimdýr (noun n.): surf-animal

kennings

Byrrǫmm brimdýr
‘The wind-strong surf-animals ’
   = SHIPS

The wind-strong surf-animals → SHIPS
Close

dýr ‘animals’

1. dýr (noun n.; °-s (spec.: dyʀiɴs KonrA 66⁴‡, etc., cf. Seip 1955 188-189); -): animal < brimdýr (noun n.): surf-animal

[4] ‑dýr: kǫld 325VII, ‘dy’ DG8

kennings

Byrrǫmm brimdýr
‘The wind-strong surf-animals ’
   = SHIPS

The wind-strong surf-animals → SHIPS
Close

Stim ‘Stemmet’

Stim (noun n.): [Stemmet]

notes

[4] Stim ‘Stemmet’: A mountain on the border between Nordmøre and Romsdalen.

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Svá ‘in such a way’

svá (adv.): so, thus

[5] Svá liðu: ‘S[...]’ 301ˣmarg

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liðu ‘travelled’

1. líða (verb): move, glide

[5] Svá liðu: ‘S[...]’ 301ˣmarg

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sunnan ‘from the south’

sunnan (adv.): (from the) south

Close

sval ‘of the cool’

svalr (adj.): cool < svalheimr (noun m.)

[6] sval‑: svǫl 61, 325V, Flat, ‘saul’ Tóm

kennings

Valar svalheims
‘The steeds of the cool world [sea] ’
   = SHIPS

the cool world [sea] → SEA
The steeds of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[6] svalheims ‘of the cool world [sea]’: This expression for ‘sea’ is of a rare type, with an adj. rather than a noun as first element, but there are seeming parallels in ÞKolb Eirdr 4/2 glæheimr ‘the glistening world’ and later in Rv Lv 21/4II svalteigr ‘cool plot’, and the determinants of a number of sea-kennings stress aspects of coldness, in terms of ice or wind (see Meissner 93). CVC also records a noun sval n. ‘a cool breeze’, but no illustrative quotations are offered and the word is not in Fritzner or ONP. ÓHLeg 1982 suggests instead a kenning ‘swallow-world [SEA]’ with svala ‘swallow’ (the bird) as the first element, but this is unconvincing.

Close

sval ‘of the cool’

svalr (adj.): cool < svalheimr (noun m.)

[6] sval‑: svǫl 61, 325V, Flat, ‘saul’ Tóm

kennings

Valar svalheims
‘The steeds of the cool world [sea] ’
   = SHIPS

the cool world [sea] → SEA
The steeds of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[6] svalheims ‘of the cool world [sea]’: This expression for ‘sea’ is of a rare type, with an adj. rather than a noun as first element, but there are seeming parallels in ÞKolb Eirdr 4/2 glæheimr ‘the glistening world’ and later in Rv Lv 21/4II svalteigr ‘cool plot’, and the determinants of a number of sea-kennings stress aspects of coldness, in terms of ice or wind (see Meissner 93). CVC also records a noun sval n. ‘a cool breeze’, but no illustrative quotations are offered and the word is not in Fritzner or ONP. ÓHLeg 1982 suggests instead a kenning ‘swallow-world [SEA]’ with svala ‘swallow’ (the bird) as the first element, but this is unconvincing.

Close

heims ‘world [sea]’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < svalheimr (noun m.)

kennings

Valar svalheims
‘The steeds of the cool world [sea] ’
   = SHIPS

the cool world [sea] → SEA
The steeds of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[6] svalheims ‘of the cool world [sea]’: This expression for ‘sea’ is of a rare type, with an adj. rather than a noun as first element, but there are seeming parallels in ÞKolb Eirdr 4/2 glæheimr ‘the glistening world’ and later in Rv Lv 21/4II svalteigr ‘cool plot’, and the determinants of a number of sea-kennings stress aspects of coldness, in terms of ice or wind (see Meissner 93). CVC also records a noun sval n. ‘a cool breeze’, but no illustrative quotations are offered and the word is not in Fritzner or ONP. ÓHLeg 1982 suggests instead a kenning ‘swallow-world [SEA]’ with svala ‘swallow’ (the bird) as the first element, but this is unconvincing.

Close

heims ‘world [sea]’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world < svalheimr (noun m.)

kennings

Valar svalheims
‘The steeds of the cool world [sea] ’
   = SHIPS

the cool world [sea] → SEA
The steeds of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[6] svalheims ‘of the cool world [sea]’: This expression for ‘sea’ is of a rare type, with an adj. rather than a noun as first element, but there are seeming parallels in ÞKolb Eirdr 4/2 glæheimr ‘the glistening world’ and later in Rv Lv 21/4II svalteigr ‘cool plot’, and the determinants of a number of sea-kennings stress aspects of coldness, in terms of ice or wind (see Meissner 93). CVC also records a noun sval n. ‘a cool breeze’, but no illustrative quotations are offered and the word is not in Fritzner or ONP. ÓHLeg 1982 suggests instead a kenning ‘swallow-world [SEA]’ with svala ‘swallow’ (the bird) as the first element, but this is unconvincing.

Close

valar ‘The steeds’

3. valr (noun m.; °; -ir): horse

[6] valar: valir Bæb, 68, vǫlur 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, ‘valurr’ DG8, valur 301ˣmarg

kennings

Valar svalheims
‘The steeds of the cool world [sea] ’
   = SHIPS

the cool world [sea] → SEA
The steeds of the SEA → SHIPS

notes

[6] valar ‘the steeds’: Valr, also a noun meaning ‘falcon’, occurs as the name of a legendary steed of one Vésteinn in a þula of horse-names in Anon Kálfv 2/1III; cf. also Þul Hesta 2/2III. It frequently functions as the base-word of ship-kennings on the pattern ‘horse of the sea’ (see LP: 1. valr and 2. Valr). Whether it is to be taken as a proper name or a common noun is often unclear. Meissner 211-2 takes it to be a simplex for ‘horse’, and no longer a proper name, as does ÍF 27, and this seems appropriate in the present context, where the noun is pl. 

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at ‘that’

3. at (prep.): at, to

[7] at: om. 325VII

notes

[7] at ‘that’: This line has five syllables, rather than the usual four in tøglag. Kock (NN §3080) regards the inclusion of this element as a metrical fault, and it is accordingly omitted in Skald.

Close

Nið ‘Nidelven’

Nið (noun f.): Nidelven

notes

[7] Nið ‘Nidelven’: The river on which the city of Trondheim stands.

Close

nýtr ‘the capable’

nýtr (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr): useful, able

[8] nýtr: ‘nyþr’ 301ˣmarg

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herflýtir ‘army-speeder’

herflýtir (noun m.): [army-speeder]

[8] herflýtir: so Holm2, Bæb, 68, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, ‘h[…]flyter’ Kˣ, ‘hærr flyti’ DG8

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