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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þjóð Yt 11I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þjóðólfr ór Hvini, Ynglingatal 11’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 26.

Þjóðólfr ór HviniYnglingatal
101112

hinn ‘that’

2. inn (art.): the

kennings

hinn vǫrðr véstalls,
‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, ’
   = KING

that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, → KING

notes

[1, 3] hinn vǫrðr véstalls ‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary [KING]’: In various skaldic poems, rulers are praised or blamed for protecting or destroying sanctuaries (e.g. Eyv Hák 18, Hfr Óldr 1), though the relationship of rulers to the priesthood and to sanctuaries in heathen times remains obscure (Sundqvist 2002, 176-213). Parallels to vǫrðr véstalls are found in valdr vés ‘owner of the sanctuary’ (KormǪ Sigdr 6/5III) and in wiawari ‘protector of the sanctuary’ in Swedish runic inscriptions (Rök Ög 136, Sparlösa Vg 119) (see Baetke 1964, 62; Sundqvist 2002, 198). Vǫrðr véstalls is construed in Hkr 1893-1901, IV in apposition to Ǭlfr, the subject of the subordinate clause, since Álfr is portrayed in Yng as always remaining at home. However, in this edn (as in FF §50, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) it is assigned to hinn ‘that’ in the main clause, referring to Yngvi, in order to preserve the integrity of the lines characteristic of Yt (see the Introduction) and because kennings rarely function as appositives.

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Ôlfr ‘Álfr’

alfr (noun m.; °; -ar): elf

notes

[2] Ôlfr ‘Álfr’: This is presumed to have developed from a cpd name *Aðwolfʀ < *Aþawulfaz, arising from loss of ð (cf. ANG §228) and u-umlaut (Yt 1925). Noreen (1912b, 129; Yt 1925) and Åkerlund (1939, 91) spell it Ǭolfr, but the contracted form is indicated here. The simplex form Alfr, from the noun alfr ‘elf’ (LP: Alfr), is preferred in Hkr 1893-1901, Skj B, Skald and ÍF 26, but this is less likely since alfr is attested only as the first or last element of personal names in Swedish runic texts (cf. Peterson 2007, 19-20).

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vǫrðr ‘guardian’

vǫrðr (noun m.; °varðar, dat. verði/vǫrð; verðir, acc. vǫrðu): guardian, defender

kennings

hinn vǫrðr véstalls,
‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, ’
   = KING

that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, → KING

notes

[1, 3] hinn vǫrðr véstalls ‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary [KING]’: In various skaldic poems, rulers are praised or blamed for protecting or destroying sanctuaries (e.g. Eyv Hák 18, Hfr Óldr 1), though the relationship of rulers to the priesthood and to sanctuaries in heathen times remains obscure (Sundqvist 2002, 176-213). Parallels to vǫrðr véstalls are found in valdr vés ‘owner of the sanctuary’ (KormǪ Sigdr 6/5III) and in wiawari ‘protector of the sanctuary’ in Swedish runic inscriptions (Rök Ög 136, Sparlösa Vg 119) (see Baetke 1964, 62; Sundqvist 2002, 198). Vǫrðr véstalls is construed in Hkr 1893-1901, IV in apposition to Ǭlfr, the subject of the subordinate clause, since Álfr is portrayed in Yng as always remaining at home. However, in this edn (as in FF §50, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) it is assigned to hinn ‘that’ in the main clause, referring to Yngvi, in order to preserve the integrity of the lines characteristic of Yt (see the Introduction) and because kennings rarely function as appositives.

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‘of the sanctuary’

1. vé (noun n.): house, sanctuary < véstallr (noun m.)1. vé (noun n.): house, sanctuary < vétjald (noun n.)1. vé (noun n.): house, sanctuary

kennings

hinn vǫrðr véstalls,
‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, ’
   = KING

that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, → KING

notes

[1, 3] hinn vǫrðr véstalls ‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary [KING]’: In various skaldic poems, rulers are praised or blamed for protecting or destroying sanctuaries (e.g. Eyv Hák 18, Hfr Óldr 1), though the relationship of rulers to the priesthood and to sanctuaries in heathen times remains obscure (Sundqvist 2002, 176-213). Parallels to vǫrðr véstalls are found in valdr vés ‘owner of the sanctuary’ (KormǪ Sigdr 6/5III) and in wiawari ‘protector of the sanctuary’ in Swedish runic inscriptions (Rök Ög 136, Sparlösa Vg 119) (see Baetke 1964, 62; Sundqvist 2002, 198). Vǫrðr véstalls is construed in Hkr 1893-1901, IV in apposition to Ǭlfr, the subject of the subordinate clause, since Álfr is portrayed in Yng as always remaining at home. However, in this edn (as in FF §50, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) it is assigned to hinn ‘that’ in the main clause, referring to Yngvi, in order to preserve the integrity of the lines characteristic of Yt (see the Introduction) and because kennings rarely function as appositives.

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stalls ‘of the altar’

stallr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i; -ar): seat, stall, support < véstallr (noun m.)

[3] ‑stalls: ‑tjalds F, ‘‑kallz’ J2ˣ, R685ˣ

kennings

hinn vǫrðr véstalls,
‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, ’
   = KING

that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary, → KING

notes

[1, 3] hinn vǫrðr véstalls ‘that guardian of the altar of the sanctuary [KING]’: In various skaldic poems, rulers are praised or blamed for protecting or destroying sanctuaries (e.g. Eyv Hák 18, Hfr Óldr 1), though the relationship of rulers to the priesthood and to sanctuaries in heathen times remains obscure (Sundqvist 2002, 176-213). Parallels to vǫrðr véstalls are found in valdr vés ‘owner of the sanctuary’ (KormǪ Sigdr 6/5III) and in wiawari ‘protector of the sanctuary’ in Swedish runic inscriptions (Rök Ög 136, Sparlösa Vg 119) (see Baetke 1964, 62; Sundqvist 2002, 198). Vǫrðr véstalls is construed in Hkr 1893-1901, IV in apposition to Ǭlfr, the subject of the subordinate clause, since Álfr is portrayed in Yng as always remaining at home. However, in this edn (as in FF §50, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991) it is assigned to hinn ‘that’ in the main clause, referring to Yngvi, in order to preserve the integrity of the lines characteristic of Yt (see the Introduction) and because kennings rarely function as appositives.

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liggja ‘lie’

liggja (verb): lie

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daulingr ‘’

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dǫglingr ‘ruler’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

[5] dǫglingr: so papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, F, R685ˣ, dǫglingr corrected from ‘dꜹlingr’ Kˣ, dǫglingar J2ˣ, ‘daulingr’ 761aˣ

notes

[5] dǫglingr ‘ruler’: Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV), Noreen (Yt 1925) and Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26) take the word to mean an offspring of Dagr (see st. 8/1), accepting the explanation in SnE (1998, I, 103), although in LP: dǫglingr Finnur Jónsson rejects this.

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mæka ‘’

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mæki ‘sword’

mækir (noun m.): sword

[6] mæki: mæka R685ˣ

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Yngva ‘Yngvi’

Yngvi (noun m.): Yngvi, prince

notes

[8] Yngva ‘Yngvi’: This has generally been assumed to refer to a king Yngvi, who was named after his royal house. However, with the exception of the late ǪrvOdd Ævdr 34/7VIII (Ǫrv 104), this would be the only instance of the otherwise well-attested heiti for ‘ruler’ being used as a pers. n., and it is possible that this might also be a ruler-heiti, and consequently that the pers. n. of Álfr’s brother is missing. In justifying this assumption one may adduce that in HN (2003, 76) the slain brother is called Ingjaldr, whereas the murderer goes unnamed: Cuius filius Ingialdr in Swecia a fratre suo ob infamiam uxoris eius occisus est. Que Bera dicta est ... ‘His son Ingjaldr was murdered in Sweden by his own brother because he had brought discredit on the latter’s wife, whose name was Bera ...’.

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rauð ‘reddened’

rjóða (verb): to redden

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bært ‘right’

bærr (adj.): right, appropriate

[9] bært: beitt F

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at ‘that’

4. at (conj.): that

[10] at: á R685ˣ

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val ‘of the slain’

1. valr (noun m.; °dat. -i; -ir): corpse, the slain < valsœfandi (noun m.)

kennings

valsœfendr
‘the slaughterers of the slain ’
   = WARRIORS

the slaughterers of the slain → WARRIORS

notes

[11] valsœfendr ‘the slaughterers of the slain [WARRIORS]’: Although sœfa means ‘to slaughter’ (animals), the word is used both in prose and in poetry for the killing of enemies in battle (cf. LP, Fritzner: sœfa). Konráð Gíslason (1881, 222-4) points out that the phrase has a parallel in fella val ‘cut down the slain’ (cf. Hárb 16/6, 37/11, Sigsk 37/4, Hávm 87/4).

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sœfendr ‘the slaughterers’

sœfandi (noun m.): [slaughterers] < valsœfandi (noun m.)

kennings

valsœfendr
‘the slaughterers of the slain ’
   = WARRIORS

the slaughterers of the slain → WARRIORS

notes

[11] valsœfendr ‘the slaughterers of the slain [WARRIORS]’: Although sœfa means ‘to slaughter’ (animals), the word is used both in prose and in poetry for the killing of enemies in battle (cf. LP, Fritzner: sœfa). Konráð Gíslason (1881, 222-4) points out that the phrase has a parallel in fella val ‘cut down the slain’ (cf. Hárb 16/6, 37/11, Sigsk 37/4, Hávm 87/4).

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hvetja ‘incite’

hvetja (verb): incite, urge

[12] hvetja: víkja F

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

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bredr ‘’

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b[...] ‘’

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urðusk ‘became each other’s’

1. verða (verb): become, be

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óþurfendr ‘needlessly’

óþurfandi (noun m.): [needlessly]

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afryði ‘’

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afbrýði ‘jealousy’

afbrygði (noun f.; °-/-s): °jealousy

[16] afbrýði: ‘afryði’ papp18ˣ, 521ˣ, 761aˣ

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The brothers Álfr and Yngvi take over the kingship after their father Alrekr. Álfr remains in the country, while Yngvi leaves to be a viking. Yngvi is a successful, able warrior, handsome and cheerful, while Álfr is taciturn, unfriendly and conscious of his power. His wife Bera clearly prefers his brother and makes him jealous. One evening Álfr kills Yngvi with his sword, but Yngvi is able to return the blow, killing Álfr as well.

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