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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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RvHbreiðm Hl 43III

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2017, ‘Rǫgnvaldr jarl and Hallr Þórarinsson, Háttalykill 43’ in Kari Ellen Gade and Edith Marold (eds), Poetry from Treatises on Poetics. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 3. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1051.

Rǫgnvaldr jarl and Hallr ÞórarinssonHáttalykill
424344

Angantýs ‘Angantýr’s’

Angantýr (noun m.)

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góða ‘good’

góðr (adj.): good

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brot ‘fragments’

brot (noun n.; °-s; -): piece, fragment

kennings

bjúg brot bauga
‘bent fragments of rings ’
   = GOLD

bent fragments of rings → GOLD
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bauga ‘of rings’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

kennings

bjúg brot bauga
‘bent fragments of rings ’
   = GOLD

bent fragments of rings → GOLD
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bjúg ‘bent’

bjúgr (adj.; °compar. -ari): bent

kennings

bjúg brot bauga
‘bent fragments of rings ’
   = GOLD

bent fragments of rings → GOLD
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hertogi ‘the army-leader’

hertogi (noun m.): duke

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fljúga ‘fly’

fljúga (verb): fly

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nema ‘unless’

2. nema (conj.): unless

[5] nema: so R683ˣ, ‘mema’ papp25ˣ

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ljúga ‘lie’

ljúga (verb): lie

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ljúga ‘lie’

ljúga (verb): lie

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randa ‘of shield-rims’

rǫnd (noun f.; °dat. -/-u; rendr/randir): shield, shield-rim

kennings

runnum randa –
‘shrubs of shield-rims ’
   = WARRIORS

shrubs of shield-rims → WARRIORS
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runnum ‘shrubs’

runnr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): bush, tree

kennings

runnum randa –
‘shrubs of shield-rims ’
   = WARRIORS

shrubs of shield-rims → WARRIORS
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fsk ‘was elevated’

hefja (verb): lift, start

[7] fsk: ‘host’ papp25ˣ, R683ˣ

notes

[7] fsk ‘was elevated’: The ms. reading ‘host’ cannot be construed to make any sense, and Skj B emends to hófsk ‘was elevated, uplifted’, i.e. ‘increased’ (Sveinbjörn Egilsson, SnE 1848, 243, provides hèlzt ‘endured’). Kock’s (NN §2075A) suggestion hefsk ‘is raised’ is based on a misreading of R683ˣ (‘hæst’).

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grams ‘of the ruler’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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lofa ‘praise’

lofa (verb): praise, permit

[8] lofa: so R683ˣ, lafa papp25ˣ

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vísa ‘of the leader’

vísi (noun m.; °-a): leader

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segja ‘relate’

segja (verb): say, tell

[9] segja: ‘seggia’ papp25ˣ, R683ˣ

notes

[9] segja ‘relate’: For the spelling <gg> for <g>, see Hl 1941, 107.

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nema ‘unless’

2. nema (conj.): unless

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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þegja ‘keep quiet’

þegja (verb): be silent

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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en ‘and’

2. en (conj.): but, and

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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ek ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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mun ‘shall’

munu (verb): will, must

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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eigi ‘not’

3. eigi (adv.): not

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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þegja ‘keep quiet’

þegja (verb): be silent

[10] nema ek þegja en ek mun eigi þegja: ‘+’ papp25ˣ, ‘…’ R683ˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

The heading is hnúfu háttr (‘Nufo hottr’), and the verse-form has no parallel in SnSt Ht, but it occurs in later medieval claves metricae. The metre is dróttkvætt with an additional line at the end of each helmingr with internal alliteration and two words (in this case a single word used twice) that rhyme with the last word in the preceding line.

The meaning of hnúfu (nom. hnúfa) in hnúfu háttr is disputed. Jón Sigurðsson suggested ‘hump-form’, referring to the additional line added to each helmingr, whereas Finnur Jónsson (1892, 56; 1907, 203) and Magnus Olsen (1932a, 150) believed that the term could have been derived from the nickname of the skald Ǫlvir hnúfa (ǪlvI) ‘Snub-nose’ (?). For later attestations of the metre, see Maríulykill st. 18 (ÍM II, 216) and Háttalykill Lopts Guttormssonar sts 5, 31 (Småstykker 11, 220, 238), where it is called álagsháttr ‘extension’s form’ (see sts 79-80 below and SnSt Ht 27). Holtsmark (Hl 1941, 132-3) suggested that the metre originated as an imitation of Old French troubadour poetry, and that the refrain may have been sung (for similar refrains in troubadour poems, see Holtsmark loc. cit.). — Angantýr Heiðreksson was a legendary king and one of the main characters in Heiðreks saga (see Heiðr, FSGJ 2, 1-71; Hlǫðskviða, NK 302-12 and AngH Lv 1-11VIII (Heiðr 93, 95-8, 106-8, 111, 118-19)). — [3-4]: Cf. SnSt Ht 45/1-2. — [9]: This line recalls Eyv Lv 1/6I. — [10]: This line was supplied by Jón Sigurðsson and adopted by all subsequent eds. The reading is conjectural, but it can be restored with a fair amount of certainty based on the rhyme (segja : þegja) and the formulaic structure of the refrains. In papp25ˣ, there is a cross at the end of l. 9, possibly indicating that there was an additional line in Rugman’s exemplar but that he was unable to read it. That assumption is corroborated by the dots added in R683ˣ.

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