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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Játg Lv 1II

Kari Ellen Gade (ed.) 2009, ‘Játgeirr Torfason, Lausavísa 1’ in Kari Ellen Gade (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 2: From c. 1035 to c. 1300. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 2. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 652-3.

Játgeirr TorfasonLausavísa1

Rjóðr ‘Reddener’

1. rjóðr (noun m.): reddener

[1] Rjóðr: Hljóðr 304ˣ, ‘Hnodít’ Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

sák ‘I saw’

2. sjá (verb): see

[1] sák (‘sa ek’): sá 304ˣ

Close

hlœkinn ‘cuddly’

hlœkinn (adj.): [cuddly]

[1] hlœkinn heðna: ‘hleckium hardna’ Flat

Close

heðna ‘heðinn (‘Woolly-shirt’)’

1. heðinn (noun m.; °dat. heðni): fur, skin

[1] hlœkinn heðna: ‘hleckium hardna’ Flat

notes

[1] heðna ‘heðinn (“Woolly-shirt”)’: A play on Þórir’s nickname flík ‘flap, corner of garment’.

Close

hjaldr ‘of the battle’

2. hjaldr (noun n.): battle < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

[2] hjaldr‑: hjaldrs Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

hjaldr ‘of the battle’

2. hjaldr (noun n.): battle < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

[2] hjaldr‑: hjaldrs Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

hjaldr ‘of the battle’

2. hjaldr (noun n.): battle < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

[2] hjaldr‑: hjaldrs Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

hjaldr ‘of the battle’

2. hjaldr (noun n.): battle < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

[2] hjaldr‑: hjaldrs Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

drifs ‘blizzard’

drif (noun n.): blizzard, driven snow < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

drifs ‘blizzard’

drif (noun n.): blizzard, driven snow < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

drifs ‘blizzard’

drif (noun n.): blizzard, driven snow < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

drifs ‘blizzard’

drif (noun n.): blizzard, driven snow < hjaldrdrif (noun n.)

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

stirð ‘of the stiff’

stirðr (adj.): stiff < stirðaurriði (noun m.)

[3] stirð‑: stríð Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

stirð ‘of the stiff’

stirðr (adj.): stiff < stirðaurriði (noun m.)

[3] stirð‑: stríð Flat

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

aurriða ‘trout’

aurriði (noun m.): [trout] < stirðaurriði (noun m.)

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

aurriða ‘trout’

aurriði (noun m.): [trout] < stirðaurriði (noun m.)

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

storðar ‘of the land’

2. storð (noun f.): young wood, earth

[3] storðar: storða F

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

storðar ‘of the land’

2. storð (noun f.): young wood, earth

[3] storðar: storða F

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

storðar ‘of the land’

2. storð (noun f.): young wood, earth

[3] storðar: storða F

kennings

Rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs,
‘Reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard, ’
   = WARRIOR

the battle -blizzard, → ARROWS
the land of ARROWS → SHIELD
the stiff trout of the SHIELD → SWORD
Reddener of the SWORD → WARRIOR
Close

stór ‘very’

Stór- ((prefix)): [very] < stórfjarri (adv.)

[4] stór‑: stóð 304ˣ

Close

Þóri ‘Þórir’

Þórir (noun m.): Þórir

[4] Þóri: Þórir 42ˣ, 81a, 304ˣ

Close

frák ‘I heard’

1. fregna (verb): hear of

[5] frák (‘fra ek’): so 81a, frá E, F, 304ˣ, Flat, fekk 42ˣ

Close

líkn ‘the comfort’

líkn (noun f.; °-ar; gen. -a): grace, mercy

notes

[5, 6] líkn lungtorgs ‘the comfort of his lung’s market-place [HEART]’: Lit. ‘of the lung-market-place’. So F. The [u] in lung- ‘lung-’ is secured by internal rhyme. This is a regular kenning for ‘breast’, used here as residence of the heart (and hence as a kenning for ‘heart’; see Meissner 138). Skj B translates this as hans hjærtes fryd ‘his heart’s delight’. Lyngtorgs lit. ‘heather-market-place’ (i.e. ‘heath’; so E, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat) makes no sense in the context.

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

[5] þás (‘þá er’): so all others, þá er vér E

notes

[5] þás ‘when’: Both Skj B and Skald silently emend to es ‘when’ against all ms. witnesses. — [5] þás lékum ‘when we played’: Játgeirr must have used the verb leika ‘play’ deliberately, thus creating a double entendre contrasting the play of the bed with the play of battle.

Close

þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

[5] þás (‘þá er’): so all others, þá er vér E

notes

[5] þás ‘when’: Both Skj B and Skald silently emend to es ‘when’ against all ms. witnesses. — [5] þás lékum ‘when we played’: Játgeirr must have used the verb leika ‘play’ deliberately, thus creating a double entendre contrasting the play of the bed with the play of battle.

Close

lékum ‘we played’

3. leika (verb): play

notes

[5] þás lékum ‘when we played’: Játgeirr must have used the verb leika ‘play’ deliberately, thus creating a double entendre contrasting the play of the bed with the play of battle.

Close

lung ‘of his lung’s’

lung (noun n.): longship < lungtorg (noun n.)

[6] lung‑: so F, lyng‑ E, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat, ‘lin’ 42ˣ

kennings

lungtorgs,
‘of his lung’s market-place ’
   = HEART

his lung’s market-place → HEART

notes

[5, 6] líkn lungtorgs ‘the comfort of his lung’s market-place [HEART]’: Lit. ‘of the lung-market-place’. So F. The [u] in lung- ‘lung-’ is secured by internal rhyme. This is a regular kenning for ‘breast’, used here as residence of the heart (and hence as a kenning for ‘heart’; see Meissner 138). Skj B translates this as hans hjærtes fryd ‘his heart’s delight’. Lyngtorgs lit. ‘heather-market-place’ (i.e. ‘heath’; so E, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat) makes no sense in the context.

Close

torgs ‘ market-place’

2. torg (noun n.; °-s): market-place < lungtorg (noun n.)

kennings

lungtorgs,
‘of his lung’s market-place ’
   = HEART

his lung’s market-place → HEART

notes

[5, 6] líkn lungtorgs ‘the comfort of his lung’s market-place [HEART]’: Lit. ‘of the lung-market-place’. So F. The [u] in lung- ‘lung-’ is secured by internal rhyme. This is a regular kenning for ‘breast’, used here as residence of the heart (and hence as a kenning for ‘heart’; see Meissner 138). Skj B translates this as hans hjærtes fryd ‘his heart’s delight’. Lyngtorgs lit. ‘heather-market-place’ (i.e. ‘heath’; so E, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat) makes no sense in the context.

Close

Ribbunga ‘the Ribbungar’

ribbungr (noun m.; °; -ar): one of the Ribbungar

notes

[6] Ribbunga ‘the Ribbungar’: See Note to Sturl Hákkv 6/8.

Close

dásinn ‘the sluggard’

dási (noun m.): [sluggard]

Close

‘lay’

liggja (verb): lie

[7] lá: so F, 42ˣ, lá at E, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat

notes

[7] ‘lay’: So F, 42ˣ. Lá at lit. ‘lay at, lay that’ or negated lá-at ‘did not lie’ (so E, 81a, 304ˣ, Flat) is either unmetrical (lá at) or makes little sense (lá-at). Skj B takes at as the conj. at ‘that’ introducing the last cl. Such a construction does not otherwise occur, because the finite verb cannot occur in preposition to the conj. (see Kuhn 1983, 118).

Close

dísidís

dís (noun f.; °; -ir): dís, woman

kennings

dísi dvergranns
‘the dís of the dwarf-house ’
   = WOMAN

the dwarf-house → STONE
the dís of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[7-8] dísi dvergranns ‘the dís <minor female deity> of the dwarf-house [STONE > WOMAN]’: Woman-kennings often have determinants from the semantic field ‘stone’, referring to strings of precious stones and pearls that women wore as adornment (see Meissner 400, 414-15).

Close

dverg ‘of the dwarf’

kennings

dísi dvergranns
‘the dís of the dwarf-house ’
   = WOMAN

the dwarf-house → STONE
the dís of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[7-8] dísi dvergranns ‘the dís <minor female deity> of the dwarf-house [STONE > WOMAN]’: Woman-kennings often have determinants from the semantic field ‘stone’, referring to strings of precious stones and pearls that women wore as adornment (see Meissner 400, 414-15).

Close

dverg ‘of the dwarf’

kennings

dísi dvergranns
‘the dís of the dwarf-house ’
   = WOMAN

the dwarf-house → STONE
the dís of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[7-8] dísi dvergranns ‘the dís <minor female deity> of the dwarf-house [STONE > WOMAN]’: Woman-kennings often have determinants from the semantic field ‘stone’, referring to strings of precious stones and pearls that women wore as adornment (see Meissner 400, 414-15).

Close

ranns ‘house’

kennings

dísi dvergranns
‘the dís of the dwarf-house ’
   = WOMAN

the dwarf-house → STONE
the dís of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[7-8] dísi dvergranns ‘the dís <minor female deity> of the dwarf-house [STONE > WOMAN]’: Woman-kennings often have determinants from the semantic field ‘stone’, referring to strings of precious stones and pearls that women wore as adornment (see Meissner 400, 414-15).

Close

ranns ‘house’

kennings

dísi dvergranns
‘the dís of the dwarf-house ’
   = WOMAN

the dwarf-house → STONE
the dís of the STONE → WOMAN

notes

[7-8] dísi dvergranns ‘the dís <minor female deity> of the dwarf-house [STONE > WOMAN]’: Woman-kennings often have determinants from the semantic field ‘stone’, referring to strings of precious stones and pearls that women wore as adornment (see Meissner 400, 414-15).

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In 1222, Skúli Bárðarson stays in Tønsberg when he hears that some of the Ribbungar are nearby. He says that, when two men share the same bed, they are to cast lots about which one of them will go after the Ribbungar. Játgeirr, who is the bedmate of Þórir flík ‘Flap of Garment’, loses, and he and the others go off to fight. When he returns, Þórir asks him how it had gone, and Játgeirr responds with this st.

In 304ˣ, Játgeirr is mistakenly referred to as ‘Oddgeirr Skáldtorfuson’. — [1, 2, 3] rjóðr stirðaurriða storðar hjaldrdrifs ‘reddener of the stiff trout of the land of the battle-blizzard [ARROWS > SHIELD > SWORD > WARRIOR]’: Kock (NN §2748F) unravels this kenning as follows: rjóðr storðar stirðaurriða hjaldrdrifs ‘reddener of the land of the stiff trout of the battle-blizzard [ARROWS > SWORD > SHIELD > WARRIOR]’. That interpretation is also possible, but less preferable, since a warrior is more likely to redden a sword than a shield in blood. — [2] Kýrfjalli ‘Kýrfjall’: Lit. ‘Cows’ Mountain’ is an unidentified p. n. in Vestfold, Norway. Note the imperfect rhyme (-ald- : -all-). — [8] í Túnsbergi ‘in Tønsberg’: Town in Vestfold on the western side of Oslofjorden.

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