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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Kálf Kátr 40VII

Kirsten Wolf (ed.) 2007, ‘Kálfr Hallsson, Kátrínardrápa 40’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 956.

Kálfr HallssonKátrínardrápa
394041

Hvern ‘each’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

kennings

hvern lund hjörva
‘each tree of swords ’
   = MAN

each tree of swords → MAN
Close

hjörva ‘of swords’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

hvern lund hjörva
‘each tree of swords ’
   = MAN

each tree of swords → MAN
Close

lund ‘tree’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree

kennings

hvern lund hjörva
‘each tree of swords ’
   = MAN

each tree of swords → MAN
Close

missa ‘shall lose’

2. missa (verb): lose, lack

Close

fjörvi ‘life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

Close

veðra ‘of the winds’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

[3] veðra: so 399a‑bˣ, veðrar 713, veðrar 920ˣ

kennings

vísi hválfs veðra,
‘the king of the vault of the winds ’
   = God

the vault of the winds → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

veðra ‘of the winds’

2. veðr (noun n.; °-s; -): weather, wind, storm

[3] veðra: so 399a‑bˣ, veðrar 713, veðrar 920ˣ

kennings

vísi hválfs veðra,
‘the king of the vault of the winds ’
   = God

the vault of the winds → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hválfs ‘of the vault’

hvalf (noun n.): vault, coffin

kennings

vísi hválfs veðra,
‘the king of the vault of the winds ’
   = God

the vault of the winds → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

hválfs ‘of the vault’

hvalf (noun n.): vault, coffin

kennings

vísi hválfs veðra,
‘the king of the vault of the winds ’
   = God

the vault of the winds → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

‘who’

4. at (conj.): that

notes

[3] ‘who’: The use of as a rel. conj. was relatively common in C14th poetry; cf. NS §259.

Close

vísi ‘the king’

2. vísir (noun m.): ruler

kennings

vísi hválfs veðra,
‘the king of the vault of the winds ’
   = God

the vault of the winds → SKY/HEAVEN
the king of the SKY/HEAVEN → God
Close

heiðrar ‘honours’

heiðra (verb): honour

Close

vella ‘of gold’

vell (noun n.): gold

kennings

njótr vella’.
‘user of gold’. ’
   = MAN

user of gold’. → MAN
Close

njótr ‘user’

njótr (noun m.): user, enjoyer

kennings

njótr vella’.
‘user of gold’. ’
   = MAN

user of gold’. → MAN
Close

hafnar ‘abandons’

1. hafna (verb): abandon, reject

[4] hafnar: hafna all

Close

Ýtar ‘The launchers’

ýtr (noun m.): man; launcher

kennings

Ýtar róms jötna
‘The launchers of the speech of giants ’
   = MEN

the speech of giants → GOLD
The launchers of the GOLD → MEN
Close

eingla ‘of angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

kennings

gæti eingla;
‘the guardian of angels; ’
   = God

the guardian of angels; → God
Close

gæti ‘the guardian’

gætir (noun m.): guardian

kennings

gæti eingla;
‘the guardian of angels; ’
   = God

the guardian of angels; → God
Close

jötna ‘of giants’

jǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giant

kennings

Ýtar róms jötna
‘The launchers of the speech of giants ’
   = MEN

the speech of giants → GOLD
The launchers of the GOLD → MEN
Close

jötna ‘of giants’

jǫtunn (noun m.; °jǫtuns, dat. jǫtni; jǫtnar): giant

kennings

Ýtar róms jötna
‘The launchers of the speech of giants ’
   = MEN

the speech of giants → GOLD
The launchers of the GOLD → MEN
Close

róms ‘of the speech’

rómr (noun m.; °dat. -): voice, applause

kennings

Ýtar róms jötna
‘The launchers of the speech of giants ’
   = MEN

the speech of giants → GOLD
The launchers of the GOLD → MEN
Close

róms ‘of the speech’

rómr (noun m.; °dat. -): voice, applause

kennings

Ýtar róms jötna
‘The launchers of the speech of giants ’
   = MEN

the speech of giants → GOLD
The launchers of the GOLD → MEN
Close

hafa ‘they had’

hafa (verb): have

Close

þjóna ‘serve’

þjóna (verb): serve

Close

meiðar ‘the trees’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree

[7] meiðar: meiðir all

kennings

meiðar elds Drafnar
‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn ’
   = MEN

the fire of Dröfn → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[7-8] meiðar elds Drafnar ‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn <wave> [GOLD > MEN]’: It is just possible that meiðar should be understood as ‘maimers’, in which case this is a kenning for generous men.

Close

dapran ‘sad’

dapr (adj.): gloomy

Close

Drafnar ‘of Dröfn’

drǫfn (noun f.): wave, Drǫfn

kennings

meiðar elds Drafnar
‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn ’
   = MEN

the fire of Dröfn → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[7-8] meiðar elds Drafnar ‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn <wave> [GOLD > MEN]’: It is just possible that meiðar should be understood as ‘maimers’, in which case this is a kenning for generous men.

Close

Drafnar ‘of Dröfn’

drǫfn (noun f.): wave, Drǫfn

kennings

meiðar elds Drafnar
‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn ’
   = MEN

the fire of Dröfn → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[7-8] meiðar elds Drafnar ‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn <wave> [GOLD > MEN]’: It is just possible that meiðar should be understood as ‘maimers’, in which case this is a kenning for generous men.

Close

elds ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

meiðar elds Drafnar
‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn ’
   = MEN

the fire of Dröfn → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[7-8] meiðar elds Drafnar ‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn <wave> [GOLD > MEN]’: It is just possible that meiðar should be understood as ‘maimers’, in which case this is a kenning for generous men.

Close

elds ‘of the fire’

eldr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-(HómÍsl¹‰(1993) 24v²⁴); -ar): fire

kennings

meiðar elds Drafnar
‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn ’
   = MEN

the fire of Dröfn → GOLD
the trees of the GOLD → MEN

notes

[7-8] meiðar elds Drafnar ‘the trees of the fire of Dröfn <wave> [GOLD > MEN]’: It is just possible that meiðar should be understood as ‘maimers’, in which case this is a kenning for generous men.

Close

Jésú ‘of Jesus’

Jésús (noun m.): Jesus

Close

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