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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 62VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 62’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 57-8.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
616263

ør ‘’

ør- ((prefix)): [carefully] < øruggr (adj.)

notes

[2] øruggt ‘fearlessly’: The word ordinarily means ‘certainly’ or ‘confidently’, but its literal meaning is ‘without fear’, and here it may refer to Einarr’s unrestrained comments on the crimes of Sigurðr’s mother and brothers.

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uggt ‘fearlessly’

uggr (adj.): anxious, fearful < øruggr (adj.)

notes

[2] øruggt ‘fearlessly’: The word ordinarily means ‘certainly’ or ‘confidently’, but its literal meaning is ‘without fear’, and here it may refer to Einarr’s unrestrained comments on the crimes of Sigurðr’s mother and brothers.

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mælik ‘I say’

1. mæla (verb): speak, say

[2] mælik (‘mæli ek’): so Bb, ‘mæl ek’ Flat

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dýrðar ‘of glory’

dýrð (noun f.; °-ar/-a(NoDipl(1279) 44²ˆ); -ir): glory

kennings

Dyggr váttr dýrðar
‘The valiant witness of glory ’
   = MARTYR

The valiant witness of glory → MARTYR

notes

[3] váttr dýrðar ‘witness of glory’: The kenning for Óláfr translates the concept ‘witness’, which is conveyed by the Church Lat. (ultimately Gk) martyr; cf. st. 6/1 and Pl 26/3.

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váttr ‘witness’

váttr (noun m.; °váttar; dat. vátt/vǽtti; váttar/vǽttir, acc. vátta/váttu/vǽtta): witness

kennings

Dyggr váttr dýrðar
‘The valiant witness of glory ’
   = MARTYR

The valiant witness of glory → MARTYR

notes

[3] váttr dýrðar ‘witness of glory’: The kenning for Óláfr translates the concept ‘witness’, which is conveyed by the Church Lat. (ultimately Gk) martyr; cf. st. 6/1 and Pl 26/3.

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dyggr ‘The valiant’

dyggr (adj.; °dyggvan/dyggan; compar. -vari/-ari/-ri, superl. -vastr/-astr/-str): trustworthy

[4] dyggr: so Bb, dyggri Flat

kennings

Dyggr váttr dýrðar
‘The valiant witness of glory ’
   = MARTYR

The valiant witness of glory → MARTYR

notes

[4] dyggr (m. nom. sg.) ‘valiant’: Bb’s adj. must be preferred here over Flat’s dyggri (comparative adj.), unless the latter is to be understood in a superlative sense ‘most valiant’.

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þvít ‘because’

þvít (conj.): because, since

[5] þvít: ef Bb

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lausnara ‘of the Saviour’

lausnari (noun m.; °-a;): saviour, redeemer

kennings

vinr lausnara,
‘the friend of the Saviour, ’
   = SAINT

the friend of the Saviour, → SAINT

notes

[5, 6] vinr lausnara ‘the friend of the Saviour’: ‘Friend of God’ is one of Einarr’s favourite periphrases for Óláfr. Cf. langvinr lausnara st. 68/1-2; also sts 9/6-8, 63/1-4 and 64/8. Flat reads langvinr (l.7), but this would produce an unmetrical l.

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lýsir ‘proclaims’

2. lýsa (verb): illuminate, show

[5] lýsir: so Bb, leysi Flat

notes

[5] lýsir (3rd pers. sg. pres. indic.) ‘proclaims’: Bb’s reading, preferable to Flat’s leysi ‘may loosen, determine’ (3rd pers. sg. pres. subj.), which does not give good sense in context.

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valdr ‘the ruler’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

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langvinr ‘the /// friend’

langvinr (noun m.): old friend

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numinn ‘taken’

1. nema (verb): to take

notes

[6] numinn aldri ‘taken from life’: Cf. numin lifi ‘taken from life’, st. 17/8 and numinn ungr heðan frá miklu angri ‘taken young from here, from great affliction’ 63/1, 4.

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aldri ‘from life’

aldr (noun m.; °aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar): life, age

notes

[6] numinn aldri ‘taken from life’: Cf. numin lifi ‘taken from life’, st. 17/8 and numinn ungr heðan frá miklu angri ‘taken young from here, from great affliction’ 63/1, 4.

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vinr ‘the friend’

vinr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -/(-i OsvReyk 92.17); -ir): friend

[7] vinr: so Bb, langvinr Flat

kennings

vinr lausnara,
‘the friend of the Saviour, ’
   = SAINT

the friend of the Saviour, → SAINT

notes

[5, 6] vinr lausnara ‘the friend of the Saviour’: ‘Friend of God’ is one of Einarr’s favourite periphrases for Óláfr. Cf. langvinr lausnara st. 68/1-2; also sts 9/6-8, 63/1-4 and 64/8. Flat reads langvinr (l.7), but this would produce an unmetrical l.

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