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Anon Óldr 28I

Kate Heslop (ed.) 2012, ‘Anonymous Poems, Óláfs drápa Tryggvasonar 28’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 1059.

Anonymous PoemsÓláfs drápa Tryggvasonar
2728

hæsta ‘the highest’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[3] hæsta: ‘hesti’ Bb

notes

[3] hæsta ‘the highest’: Ms. ‘hesti’ appears to be the weak m. nom. sg. form of the sup. adj. hæstr ‘highest’ (the dat. sg. of hestr m. ‘horse’ can be discounted). As such there is no noun in the helmingr that it can modify, so emendation is necessary. The syntactic parallelism with stað bjartan ‘illustrious place’ suggests it should be taken with hlíf f. acc. sg. ‘protection’.

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þjóð ‘of this mighty’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people < þjóðkonungr (noun m.): mighty king

notes

[4] þjóðkonungs ‘of … mighty king’: A minor emendation of ms. þjóðkonungr (nom. sg.) so as to agree with þess (gen. sg.) ‘of this’.

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konungs ‘ king’

konungr (noun m.; °dat. -i, -s; -ar): king < þjóðkonungr (noun m.): mighty king

[4] ‑konungs: ‑konungr Bb

notes

[4] þjóðkonungs ‘of … mighty king’: A minor emendation of ms. þjóðkonungr (nom. sg.) so as to agree with þess (gen. sg.) ‘of this’.

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ský ‘of cloud’

ský (noun n.; °-s; -): cloud < skýrann (noun n.): cloud-hall

[5] skýranna*: ‘skyr(ru)nar’(?) Bb

kennings

víðu tjaldi skýranna*.
‘the wide awning of cloud-halls.’
   = SKY

the wide awning of cloud-halls. → SKY

notes

[5] skýranna* ‘of cloud-halls’: (a) The ms. has a superscript mark above ‘r’ which is unclear, but probably signifies <rv>, hence ‘skyrrvnar’. Skj B’s emendation to skýranna (n. gen. pl.) ‘of cloud-halls’ is adopted here. It gives a sky-kenning of a well-attested type (Meissner 105-6), though overdetermined, since skýrann ‘cloud-hall’ alone is a sky-kenning (as in Arn Þorfdr 5/8II), making tjald n. ‘tent, awning’ redundant. Tjald could therefore be treated as a metaphorical gen. element rather than part of the kenning. Alternatively, skýrǫnn could possibly be taken as a kenning for ‘air’ which combines with tjald to form the sky-kenning, but it is not comparable with the attested air-kennings (Meissner 108). (b) The alternative emendations proposed by Gullberg (1875) and by Kock (Skald; NN §2118) lack parallels and are unconvincing. (c) A further alternative is minimal emendation to skírrunnar (m. nom. pl.) ‘shield-trees’. The adj. skírr ‘bright’ appears as a shield-heiti (i.e. ‘bright one’) in Þul Skjaldar 2/8III and in HólmgB Lv 14/5V (Korm 50) skírviðr ‘shield-tree’, but there are no other apostrophes in the poem, and this solution would leave another of the helmingr’s kennings incomplete.

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ranna* ‘halls’

rann (noun n.): house, hall < skýrann (noun n.): cloud-hall

[5] skýranna*: ‘skyr(ru)nar’(?) Bb

kennings

víðu tjaldi skýranna*.
‘the wide awning of cloud-halls.’
   = SKY

the wide awning of cloud-halls. → SKY

notes

[5] skýranna* ‘of cloud-halls’: (a) The ms. has a superscript mark above ‘r’ which is unclear, but probably signifies <rv>, hence ‘skyrrvnar’. Skj B’s emendation to skýranna (n. gen. pl.) ‘of cloud-halls’ is adopted here. It gives a sky-kenning of a well-attested type (Meissner 105-6), though overdetermined, since skýrann ‘cloud-hall’ alone is a sky-kenning (as in Arn Þorfdr 5/8II), making tjald n. ‘tent, awning’ redundant. Tjald could therefore be treated as a metaphorical gen. element rather than part of the kenning. Alternatively, skýrǫnn could possibly be taken as a kenning for ‘air’ which combines with tjald to form the sky-kenning, but it is not comparable with the attested air-kennings (Meissner 108). (b) The alternative emendations proposed by Gullberg (1875) and by Kock (Skald; NN §2118) lack parallels and are unconvincing. (c) A further alternative is minimal emendation to skírrunnar (m. nom. pl.) ‘shield-trees’. The adj. skírr ‘bright’ appears as a shield-heiti (i.e. ‘bright one’) in Þul Skjaldar 2/8III and in HólmgB Lv 14/5V (Korm 50) skírviðr ‘shield-tree’, but there are no other apostrophes in the poem, and this solution would leave another of the helmingr’s kennings incomplete.

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skreytir ‘an adorner’

skreytir (noun m.): adorner

[5] skreytir: ‘skrytir’ Bb

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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skíðs ‘of the ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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skíðs ‘of the ski’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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Ôleifi ‘Óláfr’

Óláfr (noun m.): Óláfr

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vǫgnu ‘of the orca’

vagna (noun f.; °*-u): killer whale, orca

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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vǫgnu ‘of the orca’

vagna (noun f.; °*-u): killer whale, orca

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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vǫgnu ‘of the orca’

vagna (noun f.; °*-u): killer whale, orca

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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láðs ‘of the land’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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láðs ‘of the land’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

láðs ‘of the land’

2. láð (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

skreytir skíðs láðs vǫgnu
‘an adorner of the ski of the land of the orca ’
   = SEAFARER

the land of the orca → SEA
the ski of the SEA → SHIP
an adorner of the SHIP → SEAFARER
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víðu ‘the wide’

víðr (adj.): far

kennings

víðu tjaldi skýranna*.
‘the wide awning of cloud-halls.’
   = SKY

the wide awning of cloud-halls. → SKY
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aldrigi ‘will never’

aldrigi (adv.): never

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tjaldi ‘awning’

tjald (noun n.; °-s; *-): tent, awning

kennings

víðu tjaldi skýranna*.
‘the wide awning of cloud-halls.’
   = SKY

the wide awning of cloud-halls. → SKY
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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Prayers for the soul of the dedicatee are common in the closing verses of Christian encomia (Fidjestøl 1982, 186-90; Edwards 1982-3, 38-40; Fidjestøl 1993b, 105).

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