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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Jóndr 4VII

Beatrice La Farge (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Jónsdrápa 4’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 136.

Gamli kanókiJónsdrápa
34

lát ‘let’

láta (verb): let, have sth done

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

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mik ‘me’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

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hverju ‘from every’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

Close

firðan ‘be removed’

2. firra (verb): keep (from), remove

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

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hrein ‘Pure’

2. hreinn (adj.; °compar. hreinari/hreinni, superl. hreinastr/hreinstr): pure < hreinlífr (adj.): pure-living

kennings

Hreinlífr faðir dróttar,
‘Pure-living Father of the host, ’
   = God

Pure-living Father of the host, → God
Close

lífr ‘living’

lífr (adj.): fit to live < hreinlífr (adj.): pure-living

kennings

Hreinlífr faðir dróttar,
‘Pure-living Father of the host, ’
   = God

Pure-living Father of the host, → God
Close

faðir ‘Father’

faðir (noun m.): father

kennings

Hreinlífr faðir dróttar,
‘Pure-living Father of the host, ’
   = God

Pure-living Father of the host, → God
Close

dróttar ‘of the host’

1. drótt (noun f.): troop

kennings

Hreinlífr faðir dróttar,
‘Pure-living Father of the host, ’
   = God

Pure-living Father of the host, → God
Close

meini ‘evil’

mein (noun n.; °-s; -): harm, injury

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

Close

ór ‘our’

várr (pron.; °f. ór/vár; pl. órir/várir): our

kennings

ór sôr andar
‘our wounds of the soul ’
   = SINS

our wounds of the soul → SINS

notes

[3] ór ‘our’: The ms. reading ‘var’ (= vár) is a form of the poss. pron. (1st pers. pl. ‘our’) common in mss from the C13th on (ANG §467.2).

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eyðask ‘be wiped out’

2. eyða (verb; °-dd-): destroy

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andar ‘of the soul’

2. ǫnd (noun f.; °andar, dat. ǫnd/ǫndu; andir): soul, breath

kennings

ór sôr andar
‘our wounds of the soul ’
   = SINS

our wounds of the soul → SINS
Close

sôr ‘wounds’

2. sár (noun n.; °-s; -): wound

kennings

ór sôr andar
‘our wounds of the soul ’
   = SINS

our wounds of the soul → SINS
Close

því ‘’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

Close

s ‘which’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

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ljónum ‘men’

ljónar (noun m.): men

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

Close

grandar ‘injures’

granda (verb): harm, injure

notes

[1-2, 4] lát mik firðan hverju meini þvís ljónum granda ‘let me be removed from every hard evil which injures men’: In constructions introduced by the verb lata ‘let’ and containing passive forms the inf. of the modal verb (vera) is often omitted (cf. LP, 362), as it is here: lát mik [vera] firðan ... This construction can be translated more liberally as: ‘let me be cleansed of every harm ... which injures men’. However such verbs as firra ‘to remove’ are often construed with the dat. of ‘what is removed’ and with the acc. of the person, ‘from whom’ something is removed (cf. LP: firra); the passive construction lát mik [vera] firðan hverju meini thus corresponds to an active construction firra mik meini ‘to remove me from harm’, i.e. ‘to remove harm from me’. Since the st. is a plea for the preservation from the effects of sin (cf. the fear expressed in 4/5-8 that the speaker will be separated from God at death) and since the intercalary cl. síðan mætti ór of eydask / andar sár ‘may {our wounds of the soul} [SINS] then be wiped out’ [3-4] is an explicit wish to be cleansed of sin, it appears plausible that lát mik firðan meini should be translated ‘let every harm (= sin) be removed from me’.

Close

Flotna ‘of mariners’

flotnar (noun m.): mariners

kennings

Flotna ferðgeymandi,
‘Guardian of the troop of mariners, ’
   = God

the troop of mariners, → MANKIND
Guardian of the MANKIND → God
Close

Flotna ‘of mariners’

flotnar (noun m.): mariners

kennings

Flotna ferðgeymandi,
‘Guardian of the troop of mariners, ’
   = God

the troop of mariners, → MANKIND
Guardian of the MANKIND → God
Close

vildak ‘I would wish’

vilja (verb): want, intend

Close

aldri ‘never’

aldri (adv.): never

Close

ferð ‘of the troop’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey < ferðgeymandi (noun m.)

[6] ferðgeymandi: friðgeymandi 649a

kennings

Flotna ferðgeymandi,
‘Guardian of the troop of mariners, ’
   = God

the troop of mariners, → MANKIND
Guardian of the MANKIND → God

notes

[6] ferðgeymandi, skiliðr verða: All eds follow Unger in emending the ms. reading frið ‘peace’ to ferð ‘journey, troop’ since the metre requires aðalhending with verð- (Bugge 1874, 934 n. 1).

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ferð ‘of the troop’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey < ferðgeymandi (noun m.)

[6] ferðgeymandi: friðgeymandi 649a

kennings

Flotna ferðgeymandi,
‘Guardian of the troop of mariners, ’
   = God

the troop of mariners, → MANKIND
Guardian of the MANKIND → God

notes

[6] ferðgeymandi, skiliðr verða: All eds follow Unger in emending the ms. reading frið ‘peace’ to ferð ‘journey, troop’ since the metre requires aðalhending with verð- (Bugge 1874, 934 n. 1).

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geymandi ‘Guardian’

geymandi (noun m.): [Guardian] < ferðgeymandi (noun m.)geymandi (noun m.): [Guardian] < friðgeymandi (noun m.)

[6] ferðgeymandi: friðgeymandi 649a

kennings

Flotna ferðgeymandi,
‘Guardian of the troop of mariners, ’
   = God

the troop of mariners, → MANKIND
Guardian of the MANKIND → God

notes

[6] ferðgeymandi, skiliðr verða: All eds follow Unger in emending the ms. reading frið ‘peace’ to ferð ‘journey, troop’ since the metre requires aðalhending with verð- (Bugge 1874, 934 n. 1).

Close

skiliðr ‘parted’

1. skilja (verb): separate, understand

notes

[6] ferðgeymandi, skiliðr verða: All eds follow Unger in emending the ms. reading frið ‘peace’ to ferð ‘journey, troop’ since the metre requires aðalhending with verð- (Bugge 1874, 934 n. 1).

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verða ‘to be’

1. verða (verb): become, be

notes

[6] ferðgeymandi, skiliðr verða: All eds follow Unger in emending the ms. reading frið ‘peace’ to ferð ‘journey, troop’ since the metre requires aðalhending with verð- (Bugge 1874, 934 n. 1).

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uggr ‘anxious’

uggr (adj.): anxious, fearful

notes

[7] uggr es mér ‘I am anxious’: This phrase can be translated more literally as ‘the fear exists for me’, i.e. ‘I have a fear’.

Close

es ‘am’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

notes

[7] uggr es mér ‘I am anxious’: This phrase can be translated more literally as ‘the fear exists for me’, i.e. ‘I have a fear’.

Close

mér ‘I’

ek (pron.; °mín, dat. mér, acc. mik): I, me

notes

[7] uggr es mér ‘I am anxious’: This phrase can be translated more literally as ‘the fear exists for me’, i.e. ‘I have a fear’.

Close

hvárt ‘whether’

hvárt (adv.): whether

Close

þá ‘at the time’

2. þá (adv.): then

[7] þá: þat 649a

notes

[7] þá ‘then’: The ms. reading is þat ‘that’. All eds follow Bugge in emending the demonstrative pron. þat ‘that’ to the adv. þá ‘then’ (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 2). — [8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

Close

þá ‘at the time’

2. þá (adv.): then

[7] þá: þat 649a

notes

[7] þá ‘then’: The ms. reading is þat ‘that’. All eds follow Bugge in emending the demonstrative pron. þat ‘that’ to the adv. þá ‘then’ (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 2). — [8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

Close

mák ‘I shall be able’

mega (verb): may, might

Close

þiggja ‘to receive’

þiggja (verb): receive, get

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þessa ‘this’

1. sjá (pron.; °gen. þessa dat. þessum/þeima, acc. þenna; f. sjá/þessi; n. þetta, dat. þessu/þvísa; pl. þessir): this

notes

[8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

Close

gipt ‘grace’

gift (noun f.): gift

notes

[8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

Close

es ‘when’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

notes

[8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

Close

heimar ‘worlds’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

notes

[8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

Close

skiptask ‘are exchanged’

skipta (verb): share, divide, exchange

notes

[8]: The cl. es heimar skiptask refers to the departure from ‘this world’ to ‘the other’ or ‘the next’ at death (cf. Bugge 1874, 934 n. 3).

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