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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Gamlkan Has 50VII

Katrina Attwood (ed.) 2007, ‘Gamli kanóki, Harmsól 50’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 117-18.

Gamli kanókiHarmsól
495051

Nítti ‘denied’

1. níta (verb): deny, reject

notes

[1] nítti ‘denied’: Sveinbjörn Egilsson (1844, 29 n. 60) claims that this is his correction, from B’s ‘Hítte’. In fact, ‘Hítte’ is Jón Sigurðsson’s misreading (in the 444ˣ transcript) of 399a-b’s correct reading ‘Nitte’.

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ítr ‘glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

notes

[2] ítr postoli rítar: The ítr : rítar rhyme is also exploited in 26/4 and in Leið 42/2: ítr túns himins rítar.

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postoli ‘Apostle’

postuli (noun m.; °-a; -ar): apostle

notes

[2] ítr postoli rítar: The ítr : rítar rhyme is also exploited in 26/4 and in Leið 42/2: ítr túns himins rítar.

Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2] ítr postoli rítar: The ítr : rítar rhyme is also exploited in 26/4 and in Leið 42/2: ítr túns himins rítar. — [2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2] ítr postoli rítar: The ítr : rítar rhyme is also exploited in 26/4 and in Leið 42/2: ítr túns himins rítar. — [2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2] ítr postoli rítar: The ítr : rítar rhyme is also exploited in 26/4 and in Leið 42/2: ítr túns himins rítar. — [2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

rítar ‘of the shield’

rít (noun f.): shield

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2] ítr postoli rítar: The ítr : rítar rhyme is also exploited in 26/4 and in Leið 42/2: ítr túns himins rítar. — [2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

fróns ‘of the land’

2. frón (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

fróns ‘of the land’

2. frón (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

fróns ‘of the land’

2. frón (noun n.): earth, land

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

musteris ‘of the temple’

musteri (noun n.; °-s; -): church, temple

[3] musteris: so all others, ‘muster(i)[...]’(?) B

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

musteris ‘of the temple’

musteri (noun n.; °-s; -): church, temple

[3] musteris: so all others, ‘muster(i)[...]’(?) B

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

musteris ‘of the temple’

musteri (noun n.; °-s; -): church, temple

[3] musteris: so all others, ‘muster(i)[...]’(?) B

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

festi* ‘the securer’

festir (noun m.): securer

[3] festi*: festir B

kennings

festi* rítar musteris fróns
‘the securer of the shield of the temple of the land ’
   = God

the temple of the land → HEAVEN
the shield of the HEAVEN → SUN
the securer of the SUN → God

notes

[2-3] festi* fróns musteris rítar ‘securer (dat.) of the shield of the temple of the land [HEAVEN > SUN > = God (= Christ)]’: This striking expression appears to be a conflation of two kenning-types found elsewhere in Has. In locutions like rítar ranns éla ‘(of the) shield of the house of storms’ (26/3-4), the sun is characterised as the shield of heaven. The lexical parallels noted above may indicate that Gamli intends his readers/hearers to recall that image here. He superimposes it on the concept of heaven as a shrine or temple, which occurs in skrín skýja ‘shrine of the clouds’ (19/7-8) and skrín skýstalls ‘shrine of the sky-platform’ (29/7-8). Gamli uses the OFr loanword musteri, which derives from Lat. monasterium (AEW: mustari) and is used to designate a Christian or Jewish temple or church, rather than a hof, a heathen temple (CVC: musteri). The word is used of a Christian church in Anon Vitn 15/3 and Anon Mv I 15/2.

Close

forðum ‘long ago’

forðum (adv.): formerly, once

[4] forðum: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘fo[...]um’ B

Close

þegar ‘as soon’

þegar (adv.): at once, then

[5] þegars: þegar B

notes

[5] þegars ‘as soon as’: The emendation is necessary, as þegar functions here as a conj. (þegar er), rather than an adv.

Close

s ‘as’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[5] þegars: þegar B

notes

[5] þegars ‘as soon as’: The emendation is necessary, as þegar functions here as a conj. (þegar er), rather than an adv.

Close

iðran ‘repentance’

iðrun (noun f.; °iðranar/iðrunar): repentance

[5] iðran: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘idra[...]’ B

Close

aldr ‘of the lives’

aldr (noun m.; °aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar): life, age < aldrprýðir (noun m.)

kennings

aldrprýðir lýða
‘the adorner of the lives of men [lit. life-adorner of men] ’
   = SAINT = Peter

the adorner of the lives of men [lit. life-adorner of men] → SAINT = Peter
Close

prýðir ‘the adorner’

prýðir (noun m.): adorner < aldrprýðir (noun m.)

kennings

aldrprýðir lýða
‘the adorner of the lives of men [lit. life-adorner of men] ’
   = SAINT = Peter

the adorner of the lives of men [lit. life-adorner of men] → SAINT = Peter
Close

lýða ‘of men’

lýðr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -; -ir): one of the people

kennings

aldrprýðir lýða
‘the adorner of the lives of men [lit. life-adorner of men] ’
   = SAINT = Peter

the adorner of the lives of men [lit. life-adorner of men] → SAINT = Peter
Close

grand ‘the sin’

grand (noun n.): injury < grandlauss (adj.)

[8] grandlauss: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘grand[...]uss’ B

Close

lauss ‘less’

lauss (adj.; °compar. lausari): loose, free, without < grandlauss (adj.)

[8] grandlauss: so 399a‑bˣ, ‘grand[...]uss’ B

Close

þvegit ‘washed’

1. þvá (verb): wash

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The Apostle Peter’s denial of Christ after the latter’s arrest is recounted in all four Gospels: Matt. XXVI.69-75, Mark XIV.66-72, Luke XXII.55-62 and John XVIII.16-18, 25-7.

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