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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Vell 29I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 29’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 319.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonVellekla
282930

Flótta ‘of the fleeing ones’

flótti (noun m.): flight, fleeing

[1] Flótta: flota J1ˣ

kennings

Felli-Njǫrðr flótta
‘The slaying-Njǫrðr of the fleeing ones ’
   = WARRIOR

The slaying-Njǫrðr of the fleeing ones → WARRIOR
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frettjar ‘’

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fréttar ‘an augury’

frétt (noun f.): report

[1] fréttar: ‘frettiar’ 53

notes

[1] fréttar ‘an augury’: Because of the appearance of ravens in this context, the frétt ‘intelligence, forecast’ will have been specifically an augury, a divination based on the flight of birds (on this cf. Pesch 2003, 136-7; ARG I, 428-9; ARG II, 61-3). It is unclear whether this was also typically accompanied by a sacrifice such as Hkr describes (Düwel 1985, 25-6).

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felli ‘The slaying’

3. fella (verb): fell, kill < fellinjǫrðr (noun m.)3. fella (verb): fell, kill < fellitýr (noun m.)3. fella (verb): fell, kill < fellitýr (noun m.)

kennings

Felli-Njǫrðr flótta
‘The slaying-Njǫrðr of the fleeing ones ’
   = WARRIOR

The slaying-Njǫrðr of the fleeing ones → WARRIOR
Close

Njǫrðr ‘Njǫrðr’

Njǫrðr (noun m.): Njǫrðr < fellinjǫrðr (noun m.)

[2] Njǫrðr: týs FskBˣ, týr FskAˣ

kennings

Felli-Njǫrðr flótta
‘The slaying-Njǫrðr of the fleeing ones ’
   = WARRIOR

The slaying-Njǫrðr of the fleeing ones → WARRIOR
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draugr ‘the log’

2. draugr (noun m.): ghost

[3] draugr: drjúgr 53, 54, Bb, drengr FskBˣ

kennings

draugr váða Heðins
‘the log of the clothes of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the clothes of Heðinn → ARMOUR
the log of the ARMOUR → WARRIOR
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dolga ‘of enmity’

dolg (noun n.): battle, enemy

kennings

Sôgu dolga.
‘for the Sága of enmity. ’
   = VALKYRIE = Hildr

for the Sága of enmity. → VALKYRIE = Hildr
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Sôgu ‘for the Sága’

Sága (noun f.): [Sága, for Sága]

kennings

Sôgu dolga.
‘for the Sága of enmity. ’
   = VALKYRIE = Hildr

for the Sága of enmity. → VALKYRIE = Hildr
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ráð ‘a favourable day’

ráð (noun n.; °-s; -): advice, plan, control, power < dagráð (noun n.): °favourable day, propitious moment

notes

[4] dagráð ‘advice about a favourable day’: Lit. ‘day-advice', either an indication that a day will be favourable for a particular act, or the fortunate day itself (Fritzner: dagráð 1, 2).

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Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: heiðins Bb

kennings

draugr váða Heðins
‘the log of the clothes of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the clothes of Heðinn → ARMOUR
the log of the ARMOUR → WARRIOR
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Heðins ‘of Heðinn’

2. Heðinn (noun m.): [Heðinn, champions]

[4] Heðins: heiðins Bb

kennings

draugr váða Heðins
‘the log of the clothes of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the clothes of Heðinn → ARMOUR
the log of the ARMOUR → WARRIOR
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váða ‘of the clothes’

váð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): clothes

[4] váða: valla FskBˣ

kennings

draugr váða Heðins
‘the log of the clothes of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the clothes of Heðinn → ARMOUR
the log of the ARMOUR → WARRIOR
Close

váða ‘of the clothes’

váð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): clothes

[4] váða: valla FskBˣ

kennings

draugr váða Heðins
‘the log of the clothes of Heðinn ’
   = WARRIOR

the clothes of Heðinn → ARMOUR
the log of the ARMOUR → WARRIOR
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hall ‘’

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hald ‘’

hald (noun n.; °-s; *-): support < haldboði (noun m.)

[5] hald‑: hall‑ 53, 54, Bb, FskAˣ

kennings

haldboði hildar
‘the provider of battle ’
   = WARRIOR

the provider of battle → WARRIOR
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boði ‘the provider’

boði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): messenger, breaker < haldboði (noun m.)boði (noun m.; °-a; -ar): messenger, breaker < hallboði (noun m.)

kennings

haldboði hildar
‘the provider of battle ’
   = WARRIOR

the provider of battle → WARRIOR
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hildar ‘of battle’

1. hildr (noun f.): battle

kennings

haldboði hildar
‘the provider of battle ’
   = WARRIOR

the provider of battle → WARRIOR
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hræ ‘corpse’

hræ (noun n.; °; -): corpse, carrion < hrægammr (noun m.)

kennings

ramma hrægamma;
‘powerful corpse-birds; ’
   = RAVENS/EAGLES

powerful corpse-birds; → RAVENS/EAGLES
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gamma ‘birds’

gammr (noun m.): vulture < hrægammr (noun m.)

kennings

ramma hrægamma;
‘powerful corpse-birds; ’
   = RAVENS/EAGLES

powerful corpse-birds; → RAVENS/EAGLES
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ramna ‘’

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ramma ‘powerful’

rammr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): mighty

[6] ramma: hramma F, ‘ramna’ FskBˣ

kennings

ramma hrægamma;
‘powerful corpse-birds; ’
   = RAVENS/EAGLES

powerful corpse-birds; → RAVENS/EAGLES
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Týr ‘the Týr’

Týr (noun m.): Týr

kennings

Týr teinlautar
‘the Týr of the sword-dale ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the sword-dale → SHIELD
the Týr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[7, 8] Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr <god> of the sword-dale [SHIELD > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: The word teinlautar in this kenning has been subject to numerous interpretations. (a) Teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ is assumed here and is one of the explanations considered in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991. One objection to this interpretation is that teinn ‘twig’, though it is often the base-word of a sword-kenning, is not known as a simplex denoting ‘sword’. In favour of it, however, is the similar hjǫrlaut ‘sword-dale’ in st. 30/4 below, and the fact that other solutions are still more problematic. (b) Týr teins lautar tíra ‘the Týr <god> of the twig of the dale of swords [SHIELD > SWORD > WARRIOR]’ (Fms 12; Vell 1865, 84) can be rejected since it requires emendation of týna to tíra. (c) Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr of the dale of the sacrificial twig [SACRIFICIAL BOWL > SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’ (given as an alternative in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991): Here tein- is equated with hlautteinn ‘sacrificial twig’. However, hlautteinn probably did not occur in the sense ‘sacrificial blood twig’ until the C13th; see (d). (d) Týr teinlautar emended to Týr hlautarteins ‘the Týr of the sacrificial blood twig [SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’: Although the prose context favours this kenning, this interpretation is not tenable, as all mss give ‘lautar’ except for F. Further, the word hlaut assumed here is otherwise always n., with gen. sg. in ‑s not ‑ar, and its original meaning was probably just ‘lot’ (Düwel 1985, 28). The sense ‘sacrificial blood’ appears to have arisen through Snorri as a Christian reinterpretation (Düwel 1985, 32-8).

Close

vildi ‘wanted’

vilja (verb): want, intend

[7] vildi: vildri J1ˣ, valdi 54, Bb

Close

þá ‘then’

2. þá (adv.): then

[7] þá: so F, FskBˣ, FskAˣ, sá Kˣ, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 61, 53, 54, Bb

notes

[7] þá ‘then’: This reading is preferable here, because the demonstrative in and other mss would be isolated from the noun it determines and because was most likely caused by in l.6.

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týna ‘to destroy’

týna (verb): lose, destroy

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tens ‘’

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tæm ‘’

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tein ‘of the sword’

teinn (noun m.; °dat. teini; teinar): twig, rod < teinlaut (noun f.)teinn (noun m.; °dat. teini; teinar): twig, rodteinn (noun m.; °dat. teini; teinar): twig, rod

[8] tein‑: ‘tens‑’ 53, teins‑ 54, Bb, ‘tæm‑’ FskAˣ

kennings

Týr teinlautar
‘the Týr of the sword-dale ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the sword-dale → SHIELD
the Týr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[7, 8] Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr <god> of the sword-dale [SHIELD > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: The word teinlautar in this kenning has been subject to numerous interpretations. (a) Teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ is assumed here and is one of the explanations considered in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991. One objection to this interpretation is that teinn ‘twig’, though it is often the base-word of a sword-kenning, is not known as a simplex denoting ‘sword’. In favour of it, however, is the similar hjǫrlaut ‘sword-dale’ in st. 30/4 below, and the fact that other solutions are still more problematic. (b) Týr teins lautar tíra ‘the Týr <god> of the twig of the dale of swords [SHIELD > SWORD > WARRIOR]’ (Fms 12; Vell 1865, 84) can be rejected since it requires emendation of týna to tíra. (c) Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr of the dale of the sacrificial twig [SACRIFICIAL BOWL > SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’ (given as an alternative in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991): Here tein- is equated with hlautteinn ‘sacrificial twig’. However, hlautteinn probably did not occur in the sense ‘sacrificial blood twig’ until the C13th; see (d). (d) Týr teinlautar emended to Týr hlautarteins ‘the Týr of the sacrificial blood twig [SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’: Although the prose context favours this kenning, this interpretation is not tenable, as all mss give ‘lautar’ except for F. Further, the word hlaut assumed here is otherwise always n., with gen. sg. in ‑s not ‑ar, and its original meaning was probably just ‘lot’ (Düwel 1985, 28). The sense ‘sacrificial blood’ appears to have arisen through Snorri as a Christian reinterpretation (Düwel 1985, 32-8).

Close

tein ‘of the sword’

teinn (noun m.; °dat. teini; teinar): twig, rod < teinlaut (noun f.)teinn (noun m.; °dat. teini; teinar): twig, rodteinn (noun m.; °dat. teini; teinar): twig, rod

[8] tein‑: ‘tens‑’ 53, teins‑ 54, Bb, ‘tæm‑’ FskAˣ

kennings

Týr teinlautar
‘the Týr of the sword-dale ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the sword-dale → SHIELD
the Týr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[7, 8] Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr <god> of the sword-dale [SHIELD > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: The word teinlautar in this kenning has been subject to numerous interpretations. (a) Teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ is assumed here and is one of the explanations considered in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991. One objection to this interpretation is that teinn ‘twig’, though it is often the base-word of a sword-kenning, is not known as a simplex denoting ‘sword’. In favour of it, however, is the similar hjǫrlaut ‘sword-dale’ in st. 30/4 below, and the fact that other solutions are still more problematic. (b) Týr teins lautar tíra ‘the Týr <god> of the twig of the dale of swords [SHIELD > SWORD > WARRIOR]’ (Fms 12; Vell 1865, 84) can be rejected since it requires emendation of týna to tíra. (c) Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr of the dale of the sacrificial twig [SACRIFICIAL BOWL > SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’ (given as an alternative in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991): Here tein- is equated with hlautteinn ‘sacrificial twig’. However, hlautteinn probably did not occur in the sense ‘sacrificial blood twig’ until the C13th; see (d). (d) Týr teinlautar emended to Týr hlautarteins ‘the Týr of the sacrificial blood twig [SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’: Although the prose context favours this kenning, this interpretation is not tenable, as all mss give ‘lautar’ except for F. Further, the word hlaut assumed here is otherwise always n., with gen. sg. in ‑s not ‑ar, and its original meaning was probably just ‘lot’ (Düwel 1985, 28). The sense ‘sacrificial blood’ appears to have arisen through Snorri as a Christian reinterpretation (Düwel 1985, 32-8).

Close

hlautar ‘’

Close

lꜹtr ‘’

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lautar ‘dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow < teinlaut (noun f.)laut (noun f.): dell, hollowlaut (noun f.): dell, hollowlaut (noun f.): dell, hollow < teinslaut (noun f.)

[8] ‑lautar: ‑hlautar F, ‘‑lꜹtr’ J1ˣ

kennings

Týr teinlautar
‘the Týr of the sword-dale ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the sword-dale → SHIELD
the Týr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[7, 8] Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr <god> of the sword-dale [SHIELD > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: The word teinlautar in this kenning has been subject to numerous interpretations. (a) Teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ is assumed here and is one of the explanations considered in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991. One objection to this interpretation is that teinn ‘twig’, though it is often the base-word of a sword-kenning, is not known as a simplex denoting ‘sword’. In favour of it, however, is the similar hjǫrlaut ‘sword-dale’ in st. 30/4 below, and the fact that other solutions are still more problematic. (b) Týr teins lautar tíra ‘the Týr <god> of the twig of the dale of swords [SHIELD > SWORD > WARRIOR]’ (Fms 12; Vell 1865, 84) can be rejected since it requires emendation of týna to tíra. (c) Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr of the dale of the sacrificial twig [SACRIFICIAL BOWL > SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’ (given as an alternative in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991): Here tein- is equated with hlautteinn ‘sacrificial twig’. However, hlautteinn probably did not occur in the sense ‘sacrificial blood twig’ until the C13th; see (d). (d) Týr teinlautar emended to Týr hlautarteins ‘the Týr of the sacrificial blood twig [SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’: Although the prose context favours this kenning, this interpretation is not tenable, as all mss give ‘lautar’ except for F. Further, the word hlaut assumed here is otherwise always n., with gen. sg. in ‑s not ‑ar, and its original meaning was probably just ‘lot’ (Düwel 1985, 28). The sense ‘sacrificial blood’ appears to have arisen through Snorri as a Christian reinterpretation (Düwel 1985, 32-8).

Close

lautar ‘dale’

laut (noun f.): dell, hollow < teinlaut (noun f.)laut (noun f.): dell, hollowlaut (noun f.): dell, hollowlaut (noun f.): dell, hollow < teinslaut (noun f.)

[8] ‑lautar: ‑hlautar F, ‘‑lꜹtr’ J1ˣ

kennings

Týr teinlautar
‘the Týr of the sword-dale ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the sword-dale → SHIELD
the Týr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[7, 8] Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr <god> of the sword-dale [SHIELD > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl]’: The word teinlautar in this kenning has been subject to numerous interpretations. (a) Teinlautar ‘of the sword-dale [SHIELD]’ is assumed here and is one of the explanations considered in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26 and Hkr 1991. One objection to this interpretation is that teinn ‘twig’, though it is often the base-word of a sword-kenning, is not known as a simplex denoting ‘sword’. In favour of it, however, is the similar hjǫrlaut ‘sword-dale’ in st. 30/4 below, and the fact that other solutions are still more problematic. (b) Týr teins lautar tíra ‘the Týr <god> of the twig of the dale of swords [SHIELD > SWORD > WARRIOR]’ (Fms 12; Vell 1865, 84) can be rejected since it requires emendation of týna to tíra. (c) Týr teinlautar ‘the Týr of the dale of the sacrificial twig [SACRIFICIAL BOWL > SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’ (given as an alternative in LP: teinlaut, ÍF 26, ÍF 29 and Hkr 1991): Here tein- is equated with hlautteinn ‘sacrificial twig’. However, hlautteinn probably did not occur in the sense ‘sacrificial blood twig’ until the C13th; see (d). (d) Týr teinlautar emended to Týr hlautarteins ‘the Týr of the sacrificial blood twig [SACRIFICIAL PRIEST]’: Although the prose context favours this kenning, this interpretation is not tenable, as all mss give ‘lautar’ except for F. Further, the word hlaut assumed here is otherwise always n., with gen. sg. in ‑s not ‑ar, and its original meaning was probably just ‘lot’ (Düwel 1985, 28). The sense ‘sacrificial blood’ appears to have arisen through Snorri as a Christian reinterpretation (Düwel 1985, 32-8).

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fjǫr ‘the life’

fjǫr (noun n.): life

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Gauta ‘of the Gautar’

gauti (noun m.): man, Geat

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

On his way back to Norway, Hákon jarl harries on both sides of the Eyrarsund (Øresund) and in Skáney (Skåne). He lands near the Gautasker and performs a great sacrifice. When two ravens approach, screaming loudly, Hákon is convinced that Óðinn has accepted the sacrifice, and he deems it a favourable time to do battle. He defeats Óttarr jarl of Gautland (Götaland), harries his territory and then returns to Norway. Hkr cites sts 29-31 without interruption and ÓT cites sts 29-30 without interruption, while Fsk cites st. 29 and then sts 30 and 31 (ll. 1-4 only) after the account of events in Gautland.

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