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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Hákdr 1I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Hákonardrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 279.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonHákonardrápa1

Byggði ‘occupied’

2. byggja (verb; °byggir/byggvir; byggði; byggðr): inhabit, dwell; build, found

[1] Byggði: so all others, ‘[...]’ FskBˣ

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lunda ‘of the trees’

1. lundr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ar): grove, tree

kennings

lunda gunnborðs
‘of the trees of the battle-board ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-board → SHIELD
the trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
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Gamla ‘of Gamli’

gamli (noun m.): gamli

kennings

Kind Gamla,
‘The kin of Gamli, ’
   = Eiríkssynir

The kin of Gamli, → Eiríkssynir

notes

[3] kind Gamla ‘the kin of Gamli [= Eiríkssynir]’: The kenning appears to denote the Eiríkssynir, the sons of Eiríkr blóðøx and Gunnhildr. Gamli, who died at the battle of Rastarkálfr c. 955 (cf. Eyv Lv 6/4 and Note) was the eldest of them. However, kind would normally refer to sons or descendants rather than brothers, and there is an alternative possibility (mentioned by Finnur Jónsson, LP: kind) that this Gamli is Gormr inn gamli ‘the Old’, the Danish king who was maternal grandfather of the Eiríkssynir.

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kind ‘The kin’

kind (noun f.; °-ar; -r): offspring, race

kennings

Kind Gamla,
‘The kin of Gamli, ’
   = Eiríkssynir

The kin of Gamli, → Eiríkssynir

notes

[3] kind Gamla ‘the kin of Gamli [= Eiríkssynir]’: The kenning appears to denote the Eiríkssynir, the sons of Eiríkr blóðøx and Gunnhildr. Gamli, who died at the battle of Rastarkálfr c. 955 (cf. Eyv Lv 6/4 and Note) was the eldest of them. However, kind would normally refer to sons or descendants rather than brothers, and there is an alternative possibility (mentioned by Finnur Jónsson, LP: kind) that this Gamli is Gormr inn gamli ‘the Old’, the Danish king who was maternal grandfather of the Eiríkssynir.

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granda ‘to destroy’

granda (verb): harm, injure

notes

[3, 4] granda véum ‘to destroy sanctuaries’: Eiríkr blóðøx and his sons were repeatedly blamed for having destroyed heathen sanctuaries, e.g. Egill Lv 21V (Eg 28).

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gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

lunda gunnborðs
‘of the trees of the battle-board ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-board → SHIELD
the trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

gunn ‘of the battle’

gunnr (noun f.): battle < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

lunda gunnborðs
‘of the trees of the battle-board ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-board → SHIELD
the trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

borðs ‘board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

lunda gunnborðs
‘of the trees of the battle-board ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-board → SHIELD
the trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

borðs ‘board’

borð (noun n.; °-s; -): side, plank, board; table < gunnborð (noun n.): battle-board

kennings

lunda gunnborðs
‘of the trees of the battle-board ’
   = WARRIORS

the battle-board → SHIELD
the trees of the SHIELD → WARRIORS
Close

venin ‘’

Close

véum ‘sanctuaries’

1. vé (noun n.): house, sanctuary

[4] véum: ‘venin’ FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

notes

[3, 4] granda véum ‘to destroy sanctuaries’: Eiríkr blóðøx and his sons were repeatedly blamed for having destroyed heathen sanctuaries, e.g. Egill Lv 21V (Eg 28).

Close

þorði ‘dared’

þora (verb): dare

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Nús ‘Now’

nú (adv.): now

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afrendra ‘powerful’

afrendr (adj.; °compar. -ari): powerful

[5] afrendra: afrendar FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

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Ullr ‘the Ullr’

Ullr (noun m.): Ullr

kennings

Ullr geirvaðils,
‘the Ullr of the spear-ford, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the spear-ford, → SHIELD
the Ullr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl
Close

geir ‘of the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirvaðill (noun m.)geirr (noun m.): spear < geirvalinn (adj.)

kennings

Ullr geirvaðils,
‘the Ullr of the spear-ford, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the spear-ford, → SHIELD
the Ullr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[6] geirvaðils ‘of the spear-ford [SHIELD]’: This kenning is a variation on the pattern ‘path of the weapon’, meaning ‘shield’ (Meissner 169-70).

Close

geir ‘of the spear’

geirr (noun m.): spear < geirvaðill (noun m.)geirr (noun m.): spear < geirvalinn (adj.)

kennings

Ullr geirvaðils,
‘the Ullr of the spear-ford, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the spear-ford, → SHIELD
the Ullr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[6] geirvaðils ‘of the spear-ford [SHIELD]’: This kenning is a variation on the pattern ‘path of the weapon’, meaning ‘shield’ (Meissner 169-70).

Close

vaðils ‘ford’

vaðill (noun m.; °-s, dat. -vaðli; vaðlar): [ford] < geirvaðill (noun m.)

[6] ‑vaðils: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, ‑valins FskBˣ, 51ˣ, 302ˣ

kennings

Ullr geirvaðils,
‘the Ullr of the spear-ford, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the spear-ford, → SHIELD
the Ullr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[6] geirvaðils ‘of the spear-ford [SHIELD]’: This kenning is a variation on the pattern ‘path of the weapon’, meaning ‘shield’ (Meissner 169-70).

Close

vaðils ‘ford’

vaðill (noun m.; °-s, dat. -vaðli; vaðlar): [ford] < geirvaðill (noun m.)

[6] ‑vaðils: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, ‑valins FskBˣ, 51ˣ, 302ˣ

kennings

Ullr geirvaðils,
‘the Ullr of the spear-ford, ’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

the spear-ford, → SHIELD
the Ullr of the SHIELD → WARRIOR = Hákon jarl

notes

[6] geirvaðils ‘of the spear-ford [SHIELD]’: This kenning is a variation on the pattern ‘path of the weapon’, meaning ‘shield’ (Meissner 169-70).

Close

settr ‘is established’

setja (verb): place, set, establish

[8] settr: setrs FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ

Close

hverjum ‘any’

2. hverr (pron.): who, whom, each, every

[8] hverjum: so all others, ‘hrænum’ FskBˣ

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Fsk cites this stanza immediately after Vell 15 and 17, which praise the restoration of heathenism in Norway following Hákon jarl’s rise to power.

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