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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eskál Hákdr 1I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Hákonardrápa 1’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 279.

Einarr skálaglamm HelgasonHákonardrápa1

Byggði lǫnd, en lunda
lék orð á því, forðum
Gamla kind, sús granda,
gunnborðs, véum þorði.
Nús afrendra jǫfra
Ullr geirvaðils þeira
sóknar hvatr at setri
settr hverjum gram betri.

{Kind Gamla}, sús þorði granda véum, byggði forðum lǫnd, en orð {lunda {gunnborðs}} lék á því. Nús {Ullr {geirvaðils}}, hvatr sóknar, betri hverjum gram, settr at setri þeira afrendra jǫfra.

{The kin of Gamli} [= Eiríkssynir], who dared to destroy sanctuaries, once occupied the lands, and the talk {of the trees {of the battle-board}} [SHIELD > WARRIORS] was about that. Now {the Ullr <god> {of the spear-ford}} [SHIELD > WARRIOR = Hákon jarl], bold in battle, better than any ruler, is established upon the seat of those powerful princes.

Mss: FskBˣ(19v-20r), 51ˣ(17v), 302ˣ(21v-22r), FskAˣ(79), 52ˣ(30v-31r), 301ˣ(28v) (Fsk)

Readings: [1] Byggði: so all others, ‘[...]’ FskBˣ    [4] véum: ‘venin’ FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ    [5] afrendra: afrendar FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ    [6] ‑vaðils: so FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ, ‑valins FskBˣ, 51ˣ, 302ˣ    [8] settr: setrs FskAˣ, 52ˣ, 301ˣ;    hverjum: so all others, ‘hrænum’ FskBˣ

Editions: Skj AI, 122, Skj BI, 116, Skald I, 65, NN §2736; Fsk 1847, 37, Fsk 1902-3, 70 (ch. 14), ÍF 29, 112 (ch. 16).

Context: Fsk cites this stanza immediately after Vell 15 and 17, which praise the restoration of heathenism in Norway following Hákon jarl’s rise to power.

Notes: [3] kind Gamla ‘the kin of Gamli [= Eiríkssynir]’: The kenning appears to denote the Eiríkssynir, the sons of Eiríkr blóðøx and Gunnhildr. Gamli, who died at the battle of Rastarkálfr c. 955 (cf. Eyv Lv 6/4 and Note) was the eldest of them. However, kind would normally refer to sons or descendants rather than brothers, and there is an alternative possibility (mentioned by Finnur Jónsson, LP: kind) that this Gamli is Gormr inn gamli ‘the Old’, the Danish king who was maternal grandfather of the Eiríkssynir. — [3, 4] granda véum ‘to destroy sanctuaries’: Eiríkr blóðøx and his sons were repeatedly blamed for having destroyed heathen sanctuaries, e.g. Egill Lv 21V (Eg 28). — [6] geirvaðils ‘of the spear-ford [SHIELD]’: This kenning is a variation on the pattern ‘path of the weapon’, meaning ‘shield’ (Meissner 169-70).

References

  1. Bibliography
  2. Skald = Kock, Ernst Albin, ed. 1946-50. Den norsk-isländska skaldediktningen. 2 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  3. NN = Kock, Ernst Albin. 1923-44. Notationes Norrœnæ: Anteckningar till Edda och skaldediktning. Lunds Universitets årsskrift new ser. 1. 28 vols. Lund: Gleerup.
  4. Meissner = Meissner, Rudolf. 1921. Die Kenningar der Skalden: Ein Beitrag zur skaldischen Poetik. Rheinische Beiträge und Hülfsbücher zur germanischen Philologie und Volkskunde 1. Bonn and Leipzig: Schroeder. Rpt. 1984. Hildesheim etc.: Olms.
  5. LP = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1931. Lexicon poeticum antiquæ linguæ septentrionalis: Ordbog over det norsk-islandske skjaldesprog oprindelig forfattet af Sveinbjörn Egilsson. 2nd edn. Copenhagen: Møller.
  6. Fsk 1902-3 = Finnur Jónsson, ed. 1902-3. Fagrskinna: Nóregs kononga tal. SUGNL 30. Copenhagen: Møller.
  7. Fsk 1847 = Munch, P. A. and C. R. Unger, eds. 1847. Fagrskinna. Christiania (Oslo): Malling.
  8. ÍF 29 = Ágrip af Nóregskonunga sǫgum; Fagrskinna—Nóregs konungatal. Ed. Bjarni Einarsson. 1985.
  9. Internal references
  10. Diana Whaley 2012, ‘Fagrskinna (Fsk)’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. clix-clxi.
  11. Not published: do not cite (Egill Lv 21V (Eg 28))
  12. Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Einarr skálaglamm Helgason, Vellekla 15’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 303.
  13. Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Lausavísur 6’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 223.
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