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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 65VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 65’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 60.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
646566

hǫfuðs ‘’

hǫfuð (noun n.; °-s; -): head < hǫfuðsmaðr (noun m.): leader

[2] hǫfuðsmenn: so Bb, hǫfuð manns Flat

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menn ‘the rulers’

maðr (noun m.): man, person < hǫfuðsmaðr (noun m.): leader

[2] hǫfuðsmenn: so Bb, hǫfuð manns Flat

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snarr ‘the quick’

snarr (adj.): gallant, bold

[3] snarr: snart Bb

kennings

snarr tyggi sólar
‘the quick prince of the sun ’
   = God

the quick prince of the sun → God
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tyggi ‘prince’

tyggi (noun m.): prince, sovereign

kennings

snarr tyggi sólar
‘the quick prince of the sun ’
   = God

the quick prince of the sun → God
Close

sólar ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun

kennings

snarr tyggi sólar
‘the quick prince of the sun ’
   = God

the quick prince of the sun → God
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erki ‘an arch’

erki- ((prefix)): arch- < erkistóll (noun m.): archbishopric

[4] erkistóli: so Bb, ‘erchistolar’ corrected from ‘erchisolar’ Flat

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stóli ‘bishopric’

1. stóll (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): seat, throne < erkistóll (noun m.): archbishopric

[4] erkistóli: so Bb, ‘erchistolar’ corrected from ‘erchisolar’ Flat

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Hérs ‘Here there is’

hér (adv.): here

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af ‘from’

af (prep.): from

notes

[6, 8] heilagr viðr af krossi píningar ‘holy wood from the Cross of torture’: King Sigurðr Jórsalafari (‘Jerusalem-traveller’) brought the relic of Christ’s Cross to Trondheim after receiving it as a gift from Baldwin I of Jerusalem during a trip to Palestine in 1110 (Ágr, 50-1; Storm 1888, 66; Hkr, III, 250).

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himna ‘of the heavens’

himinn (noun m.; °himins, dat. himni; himnar): heaven, sky

kennings

gervis himna;
‘of the maker of the heavens; ’
   = God

the maker of the heavens; → God

notes

[5] gervis himna ‘of the maker of the heavens’: A kenning for Christ, the creative word through whom God made the universe (Heb. I.1-2). The image of Christ as creator occurs frequently in hymns; Einarr would have known, e.g., Conditor alme siderum (AH 51, 46; Ordo Nidr., 131, 133, 135, 137-41, 144-5, 149-50); Regni cælestis conditor (AH 51, 3); Christe, cælorum conditor (AH 51, 41). Cf. also Mark Frag 1III.

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gervis ‘of the maker’

gervir (noun m.): [maker]

kennings

gervis himna;
‘of the maker of the heavens; ’
   = God

the maker of the heavens; → God

notes

[5] gervis himna ‘of the maker of the heavens’: A kenning for Christ, the creative word through whom God made the universe (Heb. I.1-2). The image of Christ as creator occurs frequently in hymns; Einarr would have known, e.g., Conditor alme siderum (AH 51, 46; Ordo Nidr., 131, 133, 135, 137-41, 144-5, 149-50); Regni cælestis conditor (AH 51, 3); Christe, cælorum conditor (AH 51, 41). Cf. also Mark Frag 1III.

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heilagr ‘holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

notes

[6, 8] heilagr viðr af krossi píningar ‘holy wood from the Cross of torture’: King Sigurðr Jórsalafari (‘Jerusalem-traveller’) brought the relic of Christ’s Cross to Trondheim after receiving it as a gift from Baldwin I of Jerusalem during a trip to Palestine in 1110 (Ágr, 50-1; Storm 1888, 66; Hkr, III, 250).

Close

viðr ‘wood’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

notes

[6, 8] heilagr viðr af krossi píningar ‘holy wood from the Cross of torture’: King Sigurðr Jórsalafari (‘Jerusalem-traveller’) brought the relic of Christ’s Cross to Trondheim after receiving it as a gift from Baldwin I of Jerusalem during a trip to Palestine in 1110 (Ágr, 50-1; Storm 1888, 66; Hkr, III, 250).

Close

yfir ‘supreme’

yfir (prep.): over < yfirskjǫldungr (noun m.)

kennings

yfirskjǫldungr aldar,
‘supreme king of men, ’
   = God

supreme king of men, → God

notes

[7] yfirskjǫldungr aldar ‘supreme king of men [= God]’: The God-kenning reflects the kenning for the hierarchy in the first helmingr: the pope may be the head-man of the world, but God is ‘over-king of mankind’, the supreme ruler of everything. Cf. hæstr skjǫldungr ‘highest prince’, st. 6/7 and ins hæsta hilmis ‘of the highest king’, st. 67/7.

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skjǫldungr ‘king’

skjǫldungr (noun m.): king < yfirskjǫldungr (noun m.)

kennings

yfirskjǫldungr aldar,
‘supreme king of men, ’
   = God

supreme king of men, → God

notes

[7] yfirskjǫldungr aldar ‘supreme king of men [= God]’: The God-kenning reflects the kenning for the hierarchy in the first helmingr: the pope may be the head-man of the world, but God is ‘over-king of mankind’, the supreme ruler of everything. Cf. hæstr skjǫldungr ‘highest prince’, st. 6/7 and ins hæsta hilmis ‘of the highest king’, st. 67/7.

Close

aldar ‘of men’

ǫld (noun f.; °; aldir): people, age

kennings

yfirskjǫldungr aldar,
‘supreme king of men, ’
   = God

supreme king of men, → God

notes

[7] yfirskjǫldungr aldar ‘supreme king of men [= God]’: The God-kenning reflects the kenning for the hierarchy in the first helmingr: the pope may be the head-man of the world, but God is ‘over-king of mankind’, the supreme ruler of everything. Cf. hæstr skjǫldungr ‘highest prince’, st. 6/7 and ins hæsta hilmis ‘of the highest king’, st. 67/7.

Close

píningar ‘of torture’

píning (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u; -ar): torment

notes

[6, 8] heilagr viðr af krossi píningar ‘holy wood from the Cross of torture’: King Sigurðr Jórsalafari (‘Jerusalem-traveller’) brought the relic of Christ’s Cross to Trondheim after receiving it as a gift from Baldwin I of Jerusalem during a trip to Palestine in 1110 (Ágr, 50-1; Storm 1888, 66; Hkr, III, 250).

Close

krossi ‘the Cross’

kross (noun m.; °-, dat. -i; -ar): cross, crucifix

notes

[6, 8] heilagr viðr af krossi píningar ‘holy wood from the Cross of torture’: King Sigurðr Jórsalafari (‘Jerusalem-traveller’) brought the relic of Christ’s Cross to Trondheim after receiving it as a gift from Baldwin I of Jerusalem during a trip to Palestine in 1110 (Ágr, 50-1; Storm 1888, 66; Hkr, III, 250).

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[1-4]: A reference to the establishment of the archdiocese of Trondheim in 1152, the visit of Cardinal Nicholas Breakspear to Norway, and his consecration of Jón Birgisson (who was in Einarr’s audience) as its first archbishop.

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