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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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ESk Geisl 49VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 49’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 47.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
484950

Þríar ‘for three’

þrír (num. cardinal): three

Close

grímur ‘nights’

gríma (noun f.; °-u): night, darkness; mask

[1] grímur: so Bb, ‘grimar’ Flat

Close

þeima ‘to that’

1. sá (pron.; °gen. þess, dat. þeim, acc. þann; f. sú, gen. þeirrar, acc. þá; n. þat, dat. því; pl. m. þeir, f. þǽ---): that (one), those

kennings

þeima Reifnis rauknstefnanda
‘to that ox-driver of Reifnir’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of Reifnir → SHIP
to that driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

þjóð ‘very’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people < þjóðnýtr (adj.): [very able]

kennings

Ríkr, þjóðnýtr bróðir Haralds
‘The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr ’
   = Óláfr

The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr → Óláfr
Close

nýtr ‘bountiful’

nýtr (adj.; °compar. -ri, superl. nýztr/nýtastr): useful, able < þjóðnýtr (adj.): [very able]

kennings

Ríkr, þjóðnýtr bróðir Haralds
‘The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr ’
   = Óláfr

The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr → Óláfr
Close

Haralds ‘of Haraldr’

Haraldr (noun m.): Haraldr

kennings

Ríkr, þjóðnýtr bróðir Haralds
‘The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr ’
   = Óláfr

The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr → Óláfr

notes

[2] bróðir Haralds ‘brother of Haraldr’: The sense of the helmingr makes it clear that bróðir is the subject of the sentence, and the nom. form of the word in Bb must be the correct reading. The epithet for Óláfr refers to his half-brother Haraldr Sigurðarson (Haraldr harðráði ‘the Hard-ruler’), the son of Óláfr’s mother and step-father, Sigurðr sýr ‘Sow’. Haraldr fought alongside Óláfr at Stiklestad, and was sole king in Norway after Magnús the Good (1047-66). He died in the battle of Stamford Bridge.

Close

bróðir ‘brother’

bróðir (noun m.; °bróður/brǿðr/bróðurs, dat. bróður/brǿðr/breðr, acc. bróður/brǿðr; brǿðr/bróðr/breðr (brǿðrirnir Jvs291 75¹⁴), gen. brǿ---): brother

[2] bróðir: so Bb, bróður Flat

kennings

Ríkr, þjóðnýtr bróðir Haralds
‘The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr ’
   = Óláfr

The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr → Óláfr

notes

[2] bróðir Haralds ‘brother of Haraldr’: The sense of the helmingr makes it clear that bróðir is the subject of the sentence, and the nom. form of the word in Bb must be the correct reading. The epithet for Óláfr refers to his half-brother Haraldr Sigurðarson (Haraldr harðráði ‘the Hard-ruler’), the son of Óláfr’s mother and step-father, Sigurðr sýr ‘Sow’. Haraldr fought alongside Óláfr at Stiklestad, and was sole king in Norway after Magnús the Good (1047-66). He died in the battle of Stamford Bridge.

Close

raukn ‘of the ox’

2. raukn (noun n.): draught animal < rauknstefnandi (noun m.)

[3] raukn‑: so Bb, ‘rauck’ Flat

kennings

þeima Reifnis rauknstefnanda
‘to that ox-driver of Reifnir’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of Reifnir → SHIP
to that driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

raukn ‘of the ox’

2. raukn (noun n.): draught animal < rauknstefnandi (noun m.)

[3] raukn‑: so Bb, ‘rauck’ Flat

kennings

þeima Reifnis rauknstefnanda
‘to that ox-driver of Reifnir’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of Reifnir → SHIP
to that driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

stefnanda ‘driver’

stefnandi (noun m.): [summoner, driver] < rauknstefnandi (noun m.)

kennings

þeima Reifnis rauknstefnanda
‘to that ox-driver of Reifnir’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of Reifnir → SHIP
to that driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

Reifnis ‘of Reifnir’

Reifnir (noun m.): Reifnir

kennings

þeima Reifnis rauknstefnanda
‘to that ox-driver of Reifnir’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of Reifnir → SHIP
to that driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

Reifnis ‘of Reifnir’

Reifnir (noun m.): Reifnir

kennings

þeima Reifnis rauknstefnanda
‘to that ox-driver of Reifnir’
   = SEAFARER

the ox of Reifnir → SHIP
to that driver of the SHIP → SEAFARER
Close

ríkr ‘The powerful’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

kennings

Ríkr, þjóðnýtr bróðir Haralds
‘The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr ’
   = Óláfr

The powerful, very bountiful brother of Haraldr → Óláfr
Close

slíkar ‘such’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

Close

þrif ‘’

þrifr (adj.)

Close

þrek ‘to the strength’

þrekr (noun m.): powerful < þrekhvass (adj.)

[5] þrekhvǫssum: so Bb, þrifhvassir Flat

Close

hvǫssum ‘keen’

hvass (adj.; °-an; -ari, -astr): keen, sharp < þrekhvass (adj.)

[5] þrekhvǫssum: so Bb, þrifhvassir Flat

Close

þing ‘of the battle’

þing (noun n.; °-s; -): meeting, assembly < þingdjarfr (adj.)

kennings

þingdjarfs snyrtis bauga
‘of the battle-brave polisher of rings ’
   = MAN = Óláfr

the battle-brave polisher of rings → MAN = Óláfr
Close

djarfs ‘brave’

djarfr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): bold < þingdjarfr (adj.)

kennings

þingdjarfs snyrtis bauga
‘of the battle-brave polisher of rings ’
   = MAN = Óláfr

the battle-brave polisher of rings → MAN = Óláfr
Close

ingaingi

Ingi (noun m.): king, Ingi

[6] inga: ‘yngva’ Bb

notes

[6] inga (dat. sg.): Ingi is a variant of the name Yngvi, given to the god Freyr, and to kings considered to have been his descendants, including the Swed. and Norw. royal houses, the Ynglingar. The name functions in skaldic poetry as a king-heiti, and here refers to the Byzantine emperor who bought the sword as a relic. However, Einarr may have chosen it with his royal audience in mind, one of whom bore the name Ingi.

Close

bauga ‘of rings’

baugr (noun m.; °dat. -i/-; -ar): ring

kennings

þingdjarfs snyrtis bauga
‘of the battle-brave polisher of rings ’
   = MAN = Óláfr

the battle-brave polisher of rings → MAN = Óláfr
Close

snyrtis ‘polisher’

snyrtir (noun m.): polisher

[7] snyrtis: ‘snytris’ Bb

kennings

þingdjarfs snyrtis bauga
‘of the battle-brave polisher of rings ’
   = MAN = Óláfr

the battle-brave polisher of rings → MAN = Óláfr
Close

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