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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þloft Tøgdr 3I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Tøgdrápa 3’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 855.

Þórarinn loftungaTøgdrápa
234

Lista ‘Lista’

Listi (noun m.): [Lista]

notes

[1] Lista ‘Lista’: Modern Lista (ON nom. sg. Listi) is on the coast of Vest-Agder. The p. n. is also used in a representative sense for ‘land’ in Sigv Austv 9/6.

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liðu ‘travelled’

1. líða (verb): move, glide

notes

[2] liðu ‘travelled’: Þórarinn uses the verb líða repeatedly in Tøgdr to express movement across the sea (also at sts 4/2 and 5/5); on the verb see further Jesch (2001a, 175).

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viðir ‘ships’

1. viðr (noun m.; °-ar, dat. -i/-; -ir, acc. -u/-i): wood, tree

notes

[2] viðir ‘the ships’: Although viðr means ‘wood’, it can function as a pars pro toto for ‘ship’ (see LP: viðr 5; Jesch 2001a, 134 and n. 30, 144).

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‘of Hå’

(unknown) < hádýr (noun n.)

[3] Há‑: haf‑ Holm2, 68, 325V, 325XI 2 g, DG8, FskAˣ, hrann‑ Bæb, haf corrected from ‘há’ 325VII, hag Flat, Tóm

notes

[3] Hádýrs ‘of Hådyret’: It is clear from the range of ms. readings that the name caused problems for many scribes. (a) Hádýr is identified here with modern Hådyret, the name of a mountain to the east of Eigersund, Rogaland (so also ÍF 27 and ÍF 29, following Birkeland and Olsen 1913). This gives good sense for the helmingr and is in keeping with the precision over place names which characterises this journey-poem. There are two further possibilities. (b) The cpd could be construed as a ship-kenning hádýr ‘rowlock-animal’ (also found in Refr Frag 5/2III, though there it seems to have an extra determinant, hranna ‘of waves’). This is assumed by Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901, IV, who takes hádýrs to qualify viðir, hence ‘the timbers of the rowlock-animal’. This also gives good sense, and the single ship identified would presumably be the same as the king’s ship in l. 6. (c) In Skj B Finnur Jónsson adopts instead the reading hafgjalfrs from several mss (as does Skald), to create a different kenning, viðir hafgjalfrs ‘timbers of the sea-roar [SHIPS]’; in the process this creates samhending ‘identical rhyme’ on haf within the line, a practice not found elsewhere in the poem.

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dýrs ‘dyret’

1. dýr (noun n.; °-s (spec.: dyʀiɴs KonrA 66⁴‡, etc., cf. Seip 1955 188-189); -): animal < hádýr (noun n.)

[3] ‑dýrs: ‑gjalfrs Holm4, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, DG8, ‘gialbrs’ 61, dýr FskAˣ

notes

[3] Hádýrs ‘of Hådyret’: It is clear from the range of ms. readings that the name caused problems for many scribes. (a) Hádýr is identified here with modern Hådyret, the name of a mountain to the east of Eigersund, Rogaland (so also ÍF 27 and ÍF 29, following Birkeland and Olsen 1913). This gives good sense for the helmingr and is in keeping with the precision over place names which characterises this journey-poem. There are two further possibilities. (b) The cpd could be construed as a ship-kenning hádýr ‘rowlock-animal’ (also found in Refr Frag 5/2III, though there it seems to have an extra determinant, hranna ‘of waves’). This is assumed by Finnur Jónsson in Hkr 1893-1901, IV, who takes hádýrs to qualify viðir, hence ‘the timbers of the rowlock-animal’. This also gives good sense, and the single ship identified would presumably be the same as the king’s ship in l. 6. (c) In Skj B Finnur Jónsson adopts instead the reading hafgjalfrs from several mss (as does Skald), to create a different kenning, viðir hafgjalfrs ‘timbers of the sea-roar [SHIPS]’; in the process this creates samhending ‘identical rhyme’ on haf within the line, a practice not found elsewhere in the poem.

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of ‘over’

3. of (prep.): around, from; too

[3] of (‘um’): í Bæb, Holm4, 61, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, FskAˣ

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kolsvartir ‘the coal-black’

kolsvartr (adj.): [coal-black]

notes

[4] kolsvartir ‘coal-black’: Jesch (2001a, 144) suggests this may be an allusion to the tarring of ships.

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innan ‘On the landward side’

innan (prep.): inside, within

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allt ‘the entire’

allr (adj.): all

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brim ‘of the surf’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimgalti (noun m.)

kennings

brimgaltar
‘of the surf-boar ’
   = SHIP

the surf-boar → SHIP

notes

[6] brimgaltar (m. gen. sg.) ‘of the surf-boar’: The position and meaning of this cpd within the helmingr is hard to construe, since the remaining words readily fall into place without it. (a) Innan is here taken as a prep., ‘on the inner side of’, with the gen. brimgaltar, so giving the sense that all the sea on the inner (landward) side of Knútr’s ship was filled with his fleet. Three further possibilities have been proposed. (b) Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27 (followed by ÍF 29) takes Hádýr to be a p. n. (see Note to l. 3), and further proposes that brimgaltar (m. nom. sg. brimgǫltr) is here to be understood as an ofljóst designation for Hádýr: brimgǫltr is a ship-kenning, and hence equivalent to hádýr ‘rowlock-animal’, which is another ship-kenning but is also the p. n. Hádýr (Hådyret), already named in l. 3; thus innan brimgaltar means innan Hádýrs ‘within Hådyret’. However, such abstruse complexity would be uncharacteristic of the poem as a whole. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Skj B is to take innan sæ ‘in the sea’ as a prepositional phrase, and skíðum brimgaltar ‘skis of the surf-boar’ as a ship-kenning, and in Hkr 1893-1901, IV he points out the parallel between viðir hádýrs ‘the timbers of the rowlock-animal’ and skíð brimgaltar ‘the skis of the surf-boar’. However, as Kock observes (NN §788), the separation of the elements innan and is dubious, and skíð brimgaltar seems unsatisfactory as a kenning: skíð must be the base-word of a ship-kenning, but brimgǫltr ‘surf-boar’ is already a perfectly acceptable ship-kenning without it; see also Meissner 220. (d) Kock therefore emends to dat. pl. brimgǫltum, in apposition with sæskíðum (both kennings for ‘ships’), and with innan standing alone as an adv. ‘within’. However, a solution without recourse to emendation seems preferable.

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galtar ‘boar’

gǫltr (noun m.): boar, hog < brimgalti (noun m.)

[6] ‑galtar: galta 61, Flat

kennings

brimgaltar
‘of the surf-boar ’
   = SHIP

the surf-boar → SHIP

notes

[6] brimgaltar (m. gen. sg.) ‘of the surf-boar’: The position and meaning of this cpd within the helmingr is hard to construe, since the remaining words readily fall into place without it. (a) Innan is here taken as a prep., ‘on the inner side of’, with the gen. brimgaltar, so giving the sense that all the sea on the inner (landward) side of Knútr’s ship was filled with his fleet. Three further possibilities have been proposed. (b) Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson in ÍF 27 (followed by ÍF 29) takes Hádýr to be a p. n. (see Note to l. 3), and further proposes that brimgaltar (m. nom. sg. brimgǫltr) is here to be understood as an ofljóst designation for Hádýr: brimgǫltr is a ship-kenning, and hence equivalent to hádýr ‘rowlock-animal’, which is another ship-kenning but is also the p. n. Hádýr (Hådyret), already named in l. 3; thus innan brimgaltar means innan Hádýrs ‘within Hådyret’. However, such abstruse complexity would be uncharacteristic of the poem as a whole. (c) Finnur Jónsson’s solution in Skj B is to take innan sæ ‘in the sea’ as a prepositional phrase, and skíðum brimgaltar ‘skis of the surf-boar’ as a ship-kenning, and in Hkr 1893-1901, IV he points out the parallel between viðir hádýrs ‘the timbers of the rowlock-animal’ and skíð brimgaltar ‘the skis of the surf-boar’. However, as Kock observes (NN §788), the separation of the elements innan and is dubious, and skíð brimgaltar seems unsatisfactory as a kenning: skíð must be the base-word of a ship-kenning, but brimgǫltr ‘surf-boar’ is already a perfectly acceptable ship-kenning without it; see also Meissner 220. (d) Kock therefore emends to dat. pl. brimgǫltum, in apposition with sæskíðum (both kennings for ‘ships’), and with innan standing alone as an adv. ‘within’. However, a solution without recourse to emendation seems preferable.

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suðr ‘to the south’

2. suðr (adv.): south, in the south

[7] suðr: sverð 325V, suð DG8

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‘by sea’

sjór (noun m.): sea < sæskíð (noun n.)

[7] sæ‑: sær 68, sum 61

kennings

sæskíðum.
‘by sea-skis. ’
   = SHIPS

by sea-skis. → SHIPS
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skíðum ‘skis’

skíð (noun n.; °; -): ski < sæskíð (noun n.)

[7] ‑skíðum: skíða J2ˣ, DG8, ‘skridu’ or ‘skidu’ 61

kennings

sæskíðum.
‘by sea-skis. ’
   = SHIPS

by sea-skis. → SHIPS
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Eikunda ‘Eiger’

Eikund (noun f.): [Eiger]

[8] Eikunda: ‘eykund’ 61

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