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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þloft Tøgdr 2I

Matthew Townend (ed.) 2012, ‘Þórarinn loftunga, Tøgdrápa 2’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 854.

Þórarinn loftungaTøgdrápa
123

Uggðu ‘feared’

ugga (verb): to fear, suspect

[1] Uggðu: ‘ygdu’ 61

Close

Egðir ‘Egðir’

Egðir (noun m.): the Egðir

notes

[1] Egðir: The people of Agðir (Agder).

Close

ǫr ‘of the eager’

ǫr- ((prefix)): eager[?] < 1. ǫrbeiðir (noun m.): [arrow-demander]

[2] ǫr‑: auð‑ 61, 75c, Flat, Tóm

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’.

Close

beiðis ‘demander’

beiðir (noun m.): demander < 1. ǫrbeiðir (noun m.): [arrow-demander]

[2] ‑beiðis: ‘bæðes’ 325VII, ‘bæðrs’ FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’.

Close

fǫr ‘the journey’

fǫr (noun f.): journey, fate; movement

[2] fǫr: ‘fyr uo᷎r’ Tóm

Close

svans ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

[3] svans: seims Bæb, svangs 61, Flat, Tóm

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’.

Close

svans ‘of the swan’

svanr (noun m.; °-s; -ir): swan

[3] svans: seims Bæb, svangs 61, Flat, Tóm

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’.

Close

sigr ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

sigr ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

sigr ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

sigr ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

sigr ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

sigr ‘of victory’

sigr (noun m.; °sigrs/sigrar, dat. sigri; sigrar): victory < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

lana ‘heaps’

lǫn (noun f.): [heaps] < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

[3] ‑lana: ‘lama’ Bæb, ‑vana FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

Close

lana ‘heaps’

lǫn (noun f.): [heaps] < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

[3] ‑lana: ‘lama’ Bæb, ‑vana FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

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lana ‘heaps’

lǫn (noun f.): [heaps] < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

[3] ‑lana: ‘lama’ Bæb, ‑vana FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

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lana ‘heaps’

lǫn (noun f.): [heaps] < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

[3] ‑lana: ‘lama’ Bæb, ‑vana FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

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lana ‘heaps’

lǫn (noun f.): [heaps] < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

[3] ‑lana: ‘lama’ Bæb, ‑vana FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

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lana ‘heaps’

lǫn (noun f.): [heaps] < sigrlǫn (noun f.)

[3] ‑lana: ‘lama’ Bæb, ‑vana FskAˣ

kennings

ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana.
‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps. ’
   = WARRIOR

victory-heaps. → CORPSES
the swan of CORPSES → RAVEN/EAGLE
the eager demander of the RAVEN/EAGLE → WARRIOR

notes

[2, 3] ǫrbeiðis svans sigrlana ‘of the eager demander of the swan of victory-heaps [CORPSES > RAVEN/EAGLE > WARRIOR]’: The kenning is problematic, since beiðir normally means ‘demander, desirer’ and forms kennings with determinants denoting such concepts as treasure, weapons or battle (see Meissner 290), as in the recurrence of the line ǫrbeiðis fǫr at st. 4/8, with the meaning ‘journey of the arrow-demander [WARRIOR]’. Here the kenning can be analysed in at least two possible ways: (a) As above (so also ÍF 27; ÍF 29). The warrior demands or wishes for the birds of battle in that he intends to make carrion of his enemies. Kock (NN §1129B) adopts the same analysis but interprets -lana differently: see Note to l. 3. (b) Ǫrbeiðis lana sigr-svans ‘of the eager demander of the heaps of the victory-swan [RAVEN/EAGLE > CORPSES > WARRIOR]’ (so LP: 1. ǫrbeiðir, sigrlǫn; ÓHLeg 1982); this unnecessarily assumes the kenning to be inverted. Skj B’s preference is unclear. (c) Meissner 122-3, 290 proposes instead to emend beiðir to beitir, with a suggested meaning ‘one who makes bite, feeder’. — [3] sigrlana ‘of victory-heaps [CORPSES]’: Skj B and Skald both print sig- ‘battle’, but the mss read sigr- ‘victory’, and sigr- is the form given in LP: sigrlǫn. The second element, -lana (f. nom. sg. lǫn) is taken by Kock (NN §1129B) as ‘lane, path’, like its cognate OE lanu. The kenning is unusual, since corpse-kennings are normally based on the pattern ‘food of the beasts of battle’ (Meissner 203), while words for ‘heap, pile’ are not normally part of the kenning structure (e.g. Arn Magndr 11/4II hrækǫstr ‘corpse-mound, corpse-heap’, 15/8II, 17/8II valkǫstr ‘heap of slain’). 

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sǫk ‘The battle’

sǫk (noun f.; °sakar; sakar/sakir): cause, offence < sǫkrammr (adj.)

[4] sǫk‑: sak‑ DG8, FskAˣ

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rammir ‘strong’

rammr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): mighty < sǫkrammr (adj.)

[4] ‑rammir: ‑runnur 61, manna Flat

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mjǫk ‘greatly’

mjǫk (adv.): very, much

notes

[4] mjǫk ‘greatly’: Skj B takes this adv. as modifying sǫkrammir ‘battle-strong’ rather than uggðu ‘feared’, as here.

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Allt ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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golli ‘with gold’

gull (noun n.): gold

notes

[5] golli ‘with gold’: On textual evidence for gold decoration on Viking Age ships see Foote (1978, 64). Traditions concerning the adornments of Danish ships, specifically those of Knútr’s father, Sveinn, are also recorded in the Encomium Emmae Reginae I. 4 (Campbell 1998, 12-15). In the reading of DG8, FskAˣ and some ÓH mss, however, it is the lið ‘troop, force’ in general that is adorned with gold, and not simply Knútr’s ship.

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grams ‘The king’s’

1. gramr (noun m.): ruler

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skip ‘ship’

skip (noun n.; °-s; -): ship

[6] skip framit: lið búit 61, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, FskAˣ, lið framit DG8

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framit ‘decorated’

fremja (verb): advance, perform

[6] skip framit: lið búit 61, 75c, 325V, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, FskAˣ, lið framit DG8

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vǫrum ‘was to me’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[7] vǫrum: var Bæb, 61, 75c, 325VII, Flat, Tóm, váru FskAˣ

notes

[7] vǫrum ‘was to me’: The variant with short vowel is required to produce neutralisation or resolution in the anacrusis; cf. SteigÞ Kv I/1II and Note. 

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sjón ‘the sight’

sjón (noun f.; °-ar; -ir): eyes, sight

[7] sjón: ‘sen’ 75c

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sǫgu ‘than [any] telling’

1. saga (noun f.; °*-u; *-ur): story, saga

notes

[7, 8] ríkari sǫgu ‘more powerful than [any] telling’: The sense seems to be that the poet is glad he saw the ship, rather than simply hearing about it. Snorri Sturluson (ÍF 27, 310) comments that Þórarinn is here boasting that he himself was present on Knútr’s expedition to Norway. The alternative possibility is that this is a rhetorical figure, declaring that the sight was greater than he could possibly tell in words.

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slíks ‘of such’

2. slíkr (adj.): such

[8] slíks: slík 325XI 2 g

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ríkari ‘more powerful’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

[8] ríkari: líkari FskAˣ

notes

[7, 8] ríkari sǫgu ‘more powerful than [any] telling’: The sense seems to be that the poet is glad he saw the ship, rather than simply hearing about it. Snorri Sturluson (ÍF 27, 310) comments that Þórarinn is here boasting that he himself was present on Knútr’s expedition to Norway. The alternative possibility is that this is a rhetorical figure, declaring that the sight was greater than he could possibly tell in words.

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