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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Þhorn Gldr 7I

Edith Marold (ed.) 2012, ‘Þorbjǫrn hornklofi, Glymdrápa 7’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 87.

Þorbjǫrn hornklofiGlymdrápa
678

Ríks ‘of the mighty’

ríkr (adj.): mighty, powerful, rich

notes

[1] ríks ‘mighty’: The adj. qualifies þjóðkonungs ‘mighty king’ in l. 4. This creates a tension that spans the entire helmingr and especially emphasizes the power of the king (cf. Engster 1983, 180; Kuhn 1983, 283).

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reiddra ‘of the swung’

2. reiða (verb): carry

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rymr ‘The roar’

rymr (noun m.): roar

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spjǫr ‘spears’

spjǫr (noun n.): spear

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glymja ‘resounded’

glymja (verb): resound

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svart ‘black’

svartr (adj.): black < svartskyggðr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[3, 4] svartskyggð sverð ‘black-polished swords’: As Holtsmark (1927, 42-3) assumes, svartskyggð may refer to the special technique of pattern welding, by which sword blades were forged out of two metals, one harder and one softer, which upon polishing yielded varied patterns and gave the sword additional strength and flexibility (see Ypey 1984; Pedersen 2004, 593). Such swords were extremely valuable and were sometimes acquired from abroad.

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skyggð ‘polished’

skyggðr (adj./verb p.p.): [polished, shining] < svartskyggðr (adj./verb p.p.)

notes

[3, 4] svartskyggð sverð ‘black-polished swords’: As Holtsmark (1927, 42-3) assumes, svartskyggð may refer to the special technique of pattern welding, by which sword blades were forged out of two metals, one harder and one softer, which upon polishing yielded varied patterns and gave the sword additional strength and flexibility (see Ypey 1984; Pedersen 2004, 593). Such swords were extremely valuable and were sometimes acquired from abroad.

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sverð ‘swords’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

notes

[3, 4] svartskyggð sverð ‘black-polished swords’: As Holtsmark (1927, 42-3) assumes, svartskyggð may refer to the special technique of pattern welding, by which sword blades were forged out of two metals, one harder and one softer, which upon polishing yielded varied patterns and gave the sword additional strength and flexibility (see Ypey 1984; Pedersen 2004, 593). Such swords were extremely valuable and were sometimes acquired from abroad.

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ferðar ‘army’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[4] ferðar: ferðir 761aˣ

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þás ‘when’

þás (conj.): when

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hugfyldra ‘of courageous’

hugfyldr (adj.): courageous

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andskoti ‘the adversary’

andskoti (noun m.; °-a; -ar): enemy, devil

kennings

andskoti Gauta
‘the adversary of the Gautar ’
   = Haraldr

the adversary of the Gautar → Haraldr

notes

[6] andskoti Gauta ‘the adversary of the Gautar [= Haraldr]’: As Modéer (1944a, 209) notes, this need not refer to the battle depicted here, and so does not constitute proof that Haraldr attacked Gautland; cf. Note to st. 6/2.

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Gauta ‘of the Gautar’

Gautar (noun m.): Gautar, Geats

kennings

andskoti Gauta
‘the adversary of the Gautar ’
   = Haraldr

the adversary of the Gautar → Haraldr

notes

[6] andskoti Gauta ‘the adversary of the Gautar [= Haraldr]’: As Modéer (1944a, 209) notes, this need not refer to the battle depicted here, and so does not constitute proof that Haraldr attacked Gautland; cf. Note to st. 6/2.

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hôr ‘loud’

3. hár (adj.; °-van; compar. hǽrri, superl. hǽstr): high

[7] hôr: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ, ár Kˣ

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sǫngr ‘the song’

sǫngr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -vi/-; -var): song

[7] sǫngr: sǫng J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 761aˣ

notes

[7, 8] sǫngr flugbeiddra vigra ‘the song of flight-driven spears’: This could be regarded as a kenning, because it fits the pattern ‘song, noise of weapons’ (Meissner 186-9, 196-7). However, the predicative adj. hôr ‘loud’ here favours a literal understanding of the phrase. Flugbeiddr ‘flight-driven, shot’ is lit. ‘flight-demanded’.

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flug ‘of flight’

2. flug (noun n.): flight, ?precipice < flugbeiddr (adj.)

[8] flug‑: ‘flꜹg‑’ J2ˣ

notes

[7, 8] sǫngr flugbeiddra vigra ‘the song of flight-driven spears’: This could be regarded as a kenning, because it fits the pattern ‘song, noise of weapons’ (Meissner 186-9, 196-7). However, the predicative adj. hôr ‘loud’ here favours a literal understanding of the phrase. Flugbeiddr ‘flight-driven, shot’ is lit. ‘flight-demanded’.

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beiddra ‘driven’

-beiddr (adj.): [driven] < flugbeiddr (adj.)-beiddr (adj.): [driven] < flaugbeiddr (adj.)

notes

[7, 8] sǫngr flugbeiddra vigra ‘the song of flight-driven spears’: This could be regarded as a kenning, because it fits the pattern ‘song, noise of weapons’ (Meissner 186-9, 196-7). However, the predicative adj. hôr ‘loud’ here favours a literal understanding of the phrase. Flugbeiddr ‘flight-driven, shot’ is lit. ‘flight-demanded’.

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vigra ‘spears’

3. vigr (noun f.): spear

notes

[7, 8] sǫngr flugbeiddra vigra ‘the song of flight-driven spears’: This could be regarded as a kenning, because it fits the pattern ‘song, noise of weapons’ (Meissner 186-9, 196-7). However, the predicative adj. hôr ‘loud’ here favours a literal understanding of the phrase. Flugbeiddr ‘flight-driven, shot’ is lit. ‘flight-demanded’.

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The Gautar resist Haraldr with a large force, but finally succumb to him.

[1-4]: The arrangement of the sentences in this helmingr is guided by Kuhn (1969b, 68), who points out that the verb in the main clause of a helmingr usually occupies the second position. — [5-8]: Kock proposes to simplify the syntax by conjoining hugfyldra hǫlða (l. 5) and sigr (l. 8), hence either an objective gen. ‘victory over the courageous men’ (so NN §234) or a gen. of the subject ‘victory of the courageous men’ (so NN §816 Anm. 2). Reichardt (1928, 105 n. 69) is correct to oppose either simplification for stylistic reasons.

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