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skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Eyv Lv 13I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Eyvindr skáldaspillir Finnsson, Lausavísur 13’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 233.

Eyvindr skáldaspillir FinnssonLausavísur
121314

langra ‘of the long’

langr (adj.; °compar. lengri, superl. lengstr): long

kennings

sporðfjǫðruðum spáþernum langra nóta,
‘the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, ’
   = HERRINGS

the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, → HERRINGS
Close

nóta ‘nets’

nót (noun f.; °-ar; nǿtr/nótir(DI II (*[1327]›Bps A II 1—) 635¹‡)): [nets]

kennings

sporðfjǫðruðum spáþernum langra nóta,
‘the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, ’
   = HERRINGS

the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, → HERRINGS
Close

lǫg ‘the ocean’

lǫgr (noun m.; °lagar, dat. legi): sea < lǫgsóti (noun m.)

kennings

lǫgsóta
‘the ocean-steed ’
   = SHIP

the ocean-steed → SHIP
Close

sóta ‘steed’

sóti (noun m.; °-a): steed, Sóti < lǫgsóti (noun m.)

kennings

lǫgsóta
‘the ocean-steed ’
   = SHIP

the ocean-steed → SHIP
Close

ver ‘with sea’

1. ver (noun n.; °-s; dat. -jum/-um): sea < verfótr (noun m.)

[2] ver‑: nær F

kennings

verfótum
‘with sea-feet ’
   = OARS

with sea-feet → OARS

notes

[2] verfótum ‘with sea-feet [OARS]’: This nonce-kenning is explained by Konráð Gíslason (1866b, 188-90). In association with the verb sporna ‘pace, prance’ it represents a manneristic extension of ‘horse of the sea’, a familiar pattern for ship-kennings. Ver n. means ‘fishing-ground’ in prose but functions as a generic sea-heiti in poetry (CVC: ver).

Close

fótum ‘feet’

1. fótr (noun m.): foot, leg < verfótr (noun m.)

kennings

verfótum
‘with sea-feet ’
   = OARS

with sea-feet → OARS

notes

[2] verfótum ‘with sea-feet [OARS]’: This nonce-kenning is explained by Konráð Gíslason (1866b, 188-90). In association with the verb sporna ‘pace, prance’ it represents a manneristic extension of ‘horse of the sea’, a familiar pattern for ship-kennings. Ver n. means ‘fishing-ground’ in prose but functions as a generic sea-heiti in poetry (CVC: ver).

Close

spá ‘prophesying’

1. spá (noun f.; °-r; -r/-ir): prophecy < spáþerna (noun f.)1. spá (noun f.; °-r; -r/-ir): prophecy < 1. spá (noun f.): prophecy

kennings

sporðfjǫðruðum spáþernum langra nóta,
‘the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, ’
   = HERRINGS

the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, → HERRINGS

notes

[3] spáþernum ‘prophesying terns’: The significance of this base-word and its prefixed agentive spá- ‘prophesying’, as well as the general association between terns and herrings, have been much discussed. Flornes (1939, 15-6) states that changes in the call of terns, and their flocking behaviour, can indicate (or ‘prophesy’) the presence of herring. But perhaps the idea is simply that boats follow terns, who indicate where the shoals are.

Close

þernum ‘terns’

1. þerna (noun f.; °; -ur): tern < spáþerna (noun f.)

[3] ‑þernum: þornum F

kennings

sporðfjǫðruðum spáþernum langra nóta,
‘the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, ’
   = HERRINGS

the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, → HERRINGS

notes

[3] spáþernum ‘prophesying terns’: The significance of this base-word and its prefixed agentive spá- ‘prophesying’, as well as the general association between terns and herrings, have been much discussed. Flornes (1939, 15-6) states that changes in the call of terns, and their flocking behaviour, can indicate (or ‘prophesy’) the presence of herring. But perhaps the idea is simply that boats follow terns, who indicate where the shoals are.

Close

sporðfjǫðruðum ‘the tailfin-feathered’

sporðfjaðraðr (adj./verb p.p.): [tailfin-feathered]

[4] sporðfjǫðruðum: so F, J1ˣ, J2ˣ, sporð ok fjǫðruðum Kˣ

kennings

sporðfjǫðruðum spáþernum langra nóta,
‘the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, ’
   = HERRINGS

the tailfin-feathered prophesying terns of the long nets, → HERRINGS
Close

norðan ‘from the north’

norðan (adv.): from the north

Close

vita ‘to see’

1. vita (verb): know

notes

[5] vita ‘to see’: The inf. form is used in anacoluthon (Hkr 1893-1901, IV), since although the two infinitives sporna ‘prance’ (l. 3) and vita ‘see’ are both dependent on lôtum ‘let us make’ (l. 1), the constructions are different.

Close

akr ‘of the field’

akr (noun m.; °akrs, dat. akri; akrar): field < akrmura (noun f.)akr (noun m.; °akrs, dat. akri; akrar): field < akr (noun m.): field

[5] akrmurur: so F, J2ˣ, ‘akr mutur’ Kˣ, ‘akry(m)ror’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

jǫkla akrmurur,
‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’
   = HERRINGS

the field of ice-floes → SEA
the silverweeds of the SEA → HERRINGS

notes

[5] -murur ‘silverweeds’: Part of a unique kenning, exceptional because in referring to herrings as plants, it crosses between the animal and plant kingdoms (cf. Meissner 116). Mura f. is the plant potentilla anserina (CVC: mura).

Close

akr ‘of the field’

akr (noun m.; °akrs, dat. akri; akrar): field < akrmura (noun f.)akr (noun m.; °akrs, dat. akri; akrar): field < akr (noun m.): field

[5] akrmurur: so F, J2ˣ, ‘akr mutur’ Kˣ, ‘akry(m)ror’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

jǫkla akrmurur,
‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’
   = HERRINGS

the field of ice-floes → SEA
the silverweeds of the SEA → HERRINGS

notes

[5] -murur ‘silverweeds’: Part of a unique kenning, exceptional because in referring to herrings as plants, it crosses between the animal and plant kingdoms (cf. Meissner 116). Mura f. is the plant potentilla anserina (CVC: mura).

Close

murur ‘the silverweeds’

mura (noun f.; °-u): [silverweeds] < akrmura (noun f.)

[5] akrmurur: so F, J2ˣ, ‘akr mutur’ Kˣ, ‘akry(m)ror’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

jǫkla akrmurur,
‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’
   = HERRINGS

the field of ice-floes → SEA
the silverweeds of the SEA → HERRINGS

notes

[5] -murur ‘silverweeds’: Part of a unique kenning, exceptional because in referring to herrings as plants, it crosses between the animal and plant kingdoms (cf. Meissner 116). Mura f. is the plant potentilla anserina (CVC: mura). — [5] jǫkla akrmurur ‘the silverweeds of the field of ice-floes [(lit. ‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’) SEA > HERRINGS]’: This kenning signifies ‘fish’ in general rather then ‘herrings’ specifically, as do those in st. 14/2 and st. 14/6. But the sense ‘herring’ is indicated by the reciprocal kenning for ‘arrows’ in st. 14/8, which features the base-word hlaupsildr ‘leaping herrings’, and by the prose contexts, which specify herrings.

Close

murur ‘the silverweeds’

mura (noun f.; °-u): [silverweeds] < akrmura (noun f.)

[5] akrmurur: so F, J2ˣ, ‘akr mutur’ Kˣ, ‘akry(m)ror’(?) J1ˣ

kennings

jǫkla akrmurur,
‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’
   = HERRINGS

the field of ice-floes → SEA
the silverweeds of the SEA → HERRINGS

notes

[5] -murur ‘silverweeds’: Part of a unique kenning, exceptional because in referring to herrings as plants, it crosses between the animal and plant kingdoms (cf. Meissner 116). Mura f. is the plant potentilla anserina (CVC: mura). — [5] jǫkla akrmurur ‘the silverweeds of the field of ice-floes [(lit. ‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’) SEA > HERRINGS]’: This kenning signifies ‘fish’ in general rather then ‘herrings’ specifically, as do those in st. 14/2 and st. 14/6. But the sense ‘herring’ is indicated by the reciprocal kenning for ‘arrows’ in st. 14/8, which features the base-word hlaupsildr ‘leaping herrings’, and by the prose contexts, which specify herrings.

Close

jǫkla ‘of ice-floes’

jǫkull (noun m.; °-s, dat. jǫkli; jǫklar): glacier

kennings

jǫkla akrmurur,
‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’
   = HERRINGS

the field of ice-floes → SEA
the silverweeds of the SEA → HERRINGS
Close

jǫkla ‘of ice-floes’

jǫkull (noun m.; °-s, dat. jǫkli; jǫklar): glacier

kennings

jǫkla akrmurur,
‘field-silverweeds of ice-floes’
   = HERRINGS

the field of ice-floes → SEA
the silverweeds of the SEA → HERRINGS
Close

ǫl ‘ale’

ǫl (noun n.; °-s; -): ale < Ǫlgerðr (noun f.)

[6] ǫl‑: eld‑ F, ǫls J1ˣ

kennings

ítr ǫl-Gerðr.
‘splendid ale-Gerðr.’
   = WOMAN

splendid ale-Gerðr. → WOMAN

notes

[6, 7] ítr ǫl-Gerðr ‘splendid ale-Gerðr <goddess> [WOMAN]’: The addressee here is unknown, except that ítr ‘splendid’ might suggest deference. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) proposes identification with Eyvindr’s wife, but without bringing any evidence.

Close

Gerðr ‘Gerðr’

Gerðr (noun f.): Gerðr < Ǫlgerðr (noun f.)Gerðr (noun f.): GerðrGerðr (noun f.): Gerðr < eldGerðr (noun f.)

kennings

ítr ǫl-Gerðr.
‘splendid ale-Gerðr.’
   = WOMAN

splendid ale-Gerðr. → WOMAN

notes

[6, 7] ítr ǫl-Gerðr ‘splendid ale-Gerðr <goddess> [WOMAN]’: The addressee here is unknown, except that ítr ‘splendid’ might suggest deference. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) proposes identification with Eyvindr’s wife, but without bringing any evidence.

Close

falar ‘marketable’

2. falr (adj.; °compar. -ari, superl. -astr): white, marketable

notes

[6] falar ‘marketable’: In constructions involving the adj. falr, the person in the dat. (here vinum ‘friends’) appears to be the seller (CVC, Fritzner: falr; cf. LP: 3 falr). On this basis, the sense here is that Eyvindr will see whether his friends can catch herring to sell (or barter) (NN §3050). These ‘friends’ are unspecified but might be dependents and workers on Eyvindr’s lands whom, according to Hkr (ÍF 26, 223) he co-opts for a fishing expedition.

Close

verði ‘will prove’

1. verða (verb): become, be

Close

ítr ‘splendid’

ítr (adj.): glorious

kennings

ítr ǫl-Gerðr.
‘splendid ale-Gerðr.’
   = WOMAN

splendid ale-Gerðr. → WOMAN

notes

[6, 7] ítr ǫl-Gerðr ‘splendid ale-Gerðr <goddess> [WOMAN]’: The addressee here is unknown, except that ítr ‘splendid’ might suggest deference. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) proposes identification with Eyvindr’s wife, but without bringing any evidence.

Close

þærs ‘that’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[7] þærs (‘þær er’): þar er F, ‘þ̄r er’ J1ˣ

Close

of ‘’

4. of (particle): (before verb)

[7] of róta: hafa rótað F

Close

róta ‘root’

róta (verb): [root]

[7] of róta: hafa rótað F

Close

unn ‘the wave’

2. unnr (noun f.): wave < unnsvín (noun n.)2. unnr (noun f.): wave < unnsinn (noun n.)

[8] unn‑: und J1ˣ

kennings

unnsvín
‘the wave-swine ’
   = SHIPS

the wave-swine → SHIPS
Close

svín ‘swine’

svín (noun n.; °-s; -): swine, pig < unnsvín (noun n.)svín (noun n.; °-s; -): swine, pig < undsvín (noun n.)

[8] ‑svín: sinn F

kennings

unnsvín
‘the wave-swine ’
   = SHIPS

the wave-swine → SHIPS
Close

mínum ‘for my’

minn (pron.; °f. mín, n. mitt): my

[8] mínum: sínum J1ˣ

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

When a shoal of herrings is spotted in spring Eyvindr mounts a fishing expedition.

Fsk (ÍF 29, 98) is evidently drawing upon Lv 13 and 14 when it mentions a shortage of herrings, even though it does not cite these stanzas (Poole 1991, 13-14).

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