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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Lil 1VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Lilja 1’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 562-3.

Anonymous PoemsLilja
12

Almáttigr ‘Almighty’

almáttigr (adj.; °·máttkan/máttigan): almighty

[1] Almáttigr: Almáttugr 99a, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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allra ‘of all’

allr (adj.): all

[1] allra: so 99a, 622, 713, 720b, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, allrar Bb

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stietta ‘orders of things’

stéttr (noun m.; °dat. -): order of things; way

[1] stietta: so 99a, 622, 713, 720b, Vb, 705ˣ, stiettar Bb

notes

[1] stietta (gen. pl.) ‘orders’: The noun is etymologically related to stíga ‘to ascend’, and its basic meaning is ‘stairstep’ (AEW). It can refer to a path or a way; a stepping-stone; a generation in a family tree; a rank, situation, or social class; or simply the condition of someone or something. Here, it emphasises God’s omnipotence over all classes of people and animals, all orders of angels and spiritual beings, and the spheres or layers of the universe. Cf. stiettar eingla ‘orders of angels’ 6/4, a specific reference to the nine orders of angels.

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yfir ‘supreme’

yfir (prep.): over < yfirbjóðandi (noun m.): [supreme ruler]

kennings

yfirbjóðandi eingla og þjóða,
‘supreme ruler of angels and peoples, ’
   = God

supreme ruler of angels and peoples, → God

notes

[2] yfirbjóðandi ‘supreme ruler’: This is the only occurrence of this word as a noun in ON: it is used as a pres. part. in Nik2 (Unger 1877, II, 157) and in Mar 1871, 617; see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for its use in MIcel. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) construes yfirbjóðandi as a pres. part. with allra stétta engla ok þjóða, translating Almægtige gud, som hersker over alle engles og folks skarer ‘Almighty God, who rules over all angels’ and peoples’ flocks’.

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bjóðandi ‘ruler’

bjóðandi (noun m.; °-a; bjóðendr): offerer < yfirbjóðandi (noun m.): [supreme ruler]

[2] ‑bjóðandi: so 99a, 622, 713, 720b, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, 705ˣ, ‘bioandinn’ Bb

kennings

yfirbjóðandi eingla og þjóða,
‘supreme ruler of angels and peoples, ’
   = God

supreme ruler of angels and peoples, → God

notes

[2] yfirbjóðandi ‘supreme ruler’: This is the only occurrence of this word as a noun in ON: it is used as a pres. part. in Nik2 (Unger 1877, II, 157) and in Mar 1871, 617; see Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4 for its use in MIcel. Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) construes yfirbjóðandi as a pres. part. with allra stétta engla ok þjóða, translating Almægtige gud, som hersker over alle engles og folks skarer ‘Almighty God, who rules over all angels’ and peoples’ flocks’.

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eingla ‘of angels’

1. engill (noun m.; °engils; englar): angel

kennings

yfirbjóðandi eingla og þjóða,
‘supreme ruler of angels and peoples, ’
   = God

supreme ruler of angels and peoples, → God
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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

kennings

yfirbjóðandi eingla og þjóða,
‘supreme ruler of angels and peoples, ’
   = God

supreme ruler of angels and peoples, → God
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þjóða ‘peoples’

þjóð (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -/-u; -ir): people

kennings

yfirbjóðandi eingla og þjóða,
‘supreme ruler of angels and peoples, ’
   = God

supreme ruler of angels and peoples, → God
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ei ‘not’

3. ei (adv.): not

[3] ei: eigi 99a

notes

[3] ei þurfandi ‘not dependent on’: Lit. ‘not needing’. So JH, glossing ikke afhængig af.

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þurfandi ‘dependent on’

þurfandi (noun m.; °-a; -endr): [dependent on]

notes

[3] ei þurfandi ‘not dependent on’: Lit. ‘not needing’. So JH, glossing ikke afhængig af.

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staða ‘places’

1. staðr (noun m.; °-ar/-s; -ir): place

[3] staða: so 99a, staði Bb, Vb, 41 8°ˣ, stað 622, 713, 720b, ‘stadane’ 705ˣ

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staði ‘places’

1. staðr (noun m.; °-ar/-s; -ir): place

[4] staði: stað 622, 713, Vb, 41 8°ˣ

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haldandi ‘holding’

halda (verb): hold, keep

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

[4] í: om. 99a

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kyrrleiks ‘of tranquility’

kyrrleikr (noun m.): [tranquility]

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valdi ‘the power’

valdr (noun m.): ruler

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senn ‘at once’

senn (adv.): at once

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uppi ‘above’

uppi (adv.): up, up in

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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niðri ‘below’

niðri (adv.): below

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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þar ‘there’

þar (adv.): there

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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í ‘in’

í (prep.): in, into

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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miðju ‘the middle’

miðja (noun f.; °-u): the middle

notes

[6]: Cf. Arngr Gd 59/2IV: uppi ok niðri ok þess í miðju ‘up and down and in between.

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um ‘for’

1. um (prep.): about, around

notes

[7] um aldr og æfi ‘forever and ever, through all ages’: An echo of the biblical formulas um allder og ad eylifu ‘through ages and in eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XLV.17 etc.), um alldr og æfi ‘through age and eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XXXIII.11 etc.), and the liturgical formula for concluding prayers, einn gud um alldir allda ‘one God, through ages of ages’ (Gradvale... 1594, passim). Cf. 74/7-8 and 66/3.

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aldr ‘ever’

aldr (noun m.; °aldrs, dat. aldri; aldrar): life, age

notes

[7] um aldr og æfi ‘forever and ever, through all ages’: An echo of the biblical formulas um allder og ad eylifu ‘through ages and in eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XLV.17 etc.), um alldr og æfi ‘through age and eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XXXIII.11 etc.), and the liturgical formula for concluding prayers, einn gud um alldir allda ‘one God, through ages of ages’ (Gradvale... 1594, passim). Cf. 74/7-8 and 66/3.

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[7] um aldr og æfi ‘forever and ever, through all ages’: An echo of the biblical formulas um allder og ad eylifu ‘through ages and in eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XLV.17 etc.), um alldr og æfi ‘through age and eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XXXIII.11 etc.), and the liturgical formula for concluding prayers, einn gud um alldir allda ‘one God, through ages of ages’ (Gradvale... 1594, passim). Cf. 74/7-8 and 66/3.

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æfi ‘ever’

ævi (noun f.; °-/-ar): life

notes

[7] um aldr og æfi ‘forever and ever, through all ages’: An echo of the biblical formulas um allder og ad eylifu ‘through ages and in eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XLV.17 etc.), um alldr og æfi ‘through age and eternity’ (Biblia... 1584, Ps. XXXIII.11 etc.), and the liturgical formula for concluding prayers, einn gud um alldir allda ‘one God, through ages of ages’ (Gradvale... 1594, passim). Cf. 74/7-8 and 66/3.

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eining ‘unity’

eining (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ar): unity

[8] eining: einn og 622

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

Cf. the ON Eluc: Iollom stoþom. segesc Goþ allr vesa. þuiat hann es iammottogr íollom stoþom slict íhelvite sem íhiminriki. Allr saman segesc hann vesa þuiat hann stýrer ollom senn íaustre oc ivestre. Of valt segesc hann vesa íollom stoþom. þuiat hann stvrer ollo iamt áhverre tiþ. Iengom staþ segesc hann vesa. þuiat hann es ólicamlegr oc ma eige licamlegr staþr halda á Goþe. enn hann heldr samann ollom hlutom oc livom ver ihonom oc erom ‘God is said to be One in all places at once because He is equally powerful everywhere, in hell as well as in heaven. He is said to be One because He rules everything at once in the East and in the West. He is said to be in all places always because He rules over everything at the same time. He is said to be in no particular place because He has no physical body, and no physical place can comprehend God. He holds together the whole universe and in Him we live and have our being’ (Eluc 1992, 4-7). Cf. also the ON translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great: Gvþ er allr i ollom ſtoþom ſen ‘God is all in all places at once’ (Þorvaldur Bjarnarson 1878, 65). Paasche (1915, 36) says of this st.: ‘God is apart from time and place; he lives in his own “powerful peace”; he is the centre of all things and fills all depths and reaches all heights. He is at once outside and within all things. He is without time or place, he stands still ... he is here, he is there, he is far, he is near, he is deep, he is high’. He suggests that the model may have been Alpha et O, magne Deus, the popular hymn on the Trinity by Hildebert of Lavardin (Scott 2001, 46-7; AH 50, 409; see also Paasche 1948, 238 and Schottmann 1973, 195). The st. celebrates the eternal Trinity, which is paradoxically both transcendent and immanent.

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