skaldic

Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

Menu Search

ESk Geisl 56VII

Martin Chase (ed.) 2007, ‘Einarr Skúlason, Geisli 56’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 52-3.

Einarr SkúlasonGeisli
555657

Ruddu ‘cleared’

2. ryðja (verb): to clear (free) land

[1] Ruddu: Eyddu Bb

Close

vagna ‘of wagons’

vǫgn (noun f.; °; vagnir): wagon

notes

[3] borg vagna ‘the fortress of wagons’: Both Snorri (Hkr, ÍF 28, 371) and John Kinnamos (in Brand 1976, 16) describe the Petchenegs’ tactic of drawing their wagons into a fortified circle.

Close

borg ‘the fortress’

borg (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -; -ir): city, stronghold

notes

[3] borg vagna ‘the fortress of wagons’: Both Snorri (Hkr, ÍF 28, 371) and John Kinnamos (in Brand 1976, 16) describe the Petchenegs’ tactic of drawing their wagons into a fortified circle.

Close

þars ‘where’

þar (adv.): there

Close

ǫll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

[5] ǫll: so Bb, ǫld Flat

Close

inna ‘tell’

inna (verb): to pay, discharge, relate, tell; to announce, confirm

notes

[5] inna ‘tell, relate’: A verb used frequently in religious poetry. However, the syntax of its usage in Flat, ungr nennir at inna ǫld verk ‘a young [man] is minded to tell men the works’, requires inna to be used with the dat, which is unprecedented.

Close

ungr ‘Young’

ungr (adj.): young

Close

øngr ‘No’

2. engi (pron.): no, none

[6] øngr (‘eingr’): so Bb, ungr Flat

kennings

Øngr sløngvir brimloga
‘No slinger of sea-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

sea-fire → GOLD
No slinger of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[6] ungr ‘young’: The adj. in Flat must be understood as a noun, possibly referring to the skald, though, if so, the reference to youth is merely conventional, since Einarr was hardly young at the time he recited Geisl.

Close

brim ‘of sea’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimlogi (noun m.)

kennings

Øngr sløngvir brimloga
‘No slinger of sea-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

sea-fire → GOLD
No slinger of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

brim ‘of sea’

brim (noun n.): surf < brimlogi (noun m.)

kennings

Øngr sløngvir brimloga
‘No slinger of sea-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

sea-fire → GOLD
No slinger of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

loga ‘fire’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame < brimlogi (noun m.)

kennings

Øngr sløngvir brimloga
‘No slinger of sea-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

sea-fire → GOLD
No slinger of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

loga ‘fire’

logi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): flame < brimlogi (noun m.)

kennings

Øngr sløngvir brimloga
‘No slinger of sea-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

sea-fire → GOLD
No slinger of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

sløngvir ‘slinger’

sløngvir (noun m.): slinger

[6] sløngvir: slungins Flat, ‘slaungir’ Bb

kennings

Øngr sløngvir brimloga
‘No slinger of sea-fire ’
   = GENEROUS MAN

sea-fire → GOLD
No slinger of the GOLD → GENEROUS MAN

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

dǫglings ‘ruler’

dǫglingr (noun m.; °; -ar): king, ruler

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

verk ‘the deeds’

verk (noun n.; °-s; -): deed

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

’s ‘who’

2. er (conj.): who, which, when

[7] þess’s: so Bb, ‘þau er’ Flat

Close

dýrkar ‘glorifies’

dýrka (verb; °-að-): glorify, worship

[7] dýrkar: so Bb, dýrka Flat

Close

dáð ‘of the quick’

dáð (noun f.; °; -ir): feat, deed < dáðsnjallr (adj.)

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

snjalls ‘acting’

snjallr (adj.): quick, resourceful, bold < dáðsnjallr (adj.)

notes

[7, 8, 6] verk dáðsnjalls dǫglings slungins brimloga ‘the works of the quick-acting ruler of scattered sea-fire’: There are two reasons to be suspicious of this kenning; the first is that dǫglingr is never used as the base-word of a kenning for a secular ruler, only for God or Christ, and this is borne out by one other example in st. 5/7, and the second is that dǫglingr is not the right sort of base-word in a kenning for a generous ruler, which should belong to a category such as ‘distributor’, ‘spender’, ‘waster’ or similar.

Close

alla ‘the whole’

allr (adj.): all

Close

Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

[1-4]: Flat is followed here, though Bb, which is followed by Skj B and Skald, also makes good sense. Differences are that Bb reads eyddu ‘they emptied, laid waste, destroyed’ in l. 1 and has pl. vápnsundruð hræ ‘the weapon-torn corpses’ in l. 4. — [5-8]: Both ms. versions of this helmingr pose problems and both may be corrupt. Here Bb has been followed (so also Skj B and Skald), and Flat’s version is discussed below. Bb’s version requires one emendation (sløngvir, l. 6; Skj A reads ‘slaungvir’, but no ‘v’ is visible in the ms.) and the sense required for dýrkar (l. 7) is somewhat unusual (Skj B som forherliger hele verden ‘who glorifies the whole world’). The problems produced by Flat’s version are as follows:

Close

Log in

This service is only available to members of the relevant projects, and to purchasers of the skaldic volumes published by Brepols.
This service uses cookies. By logging in you agree to the use of cookies on your browser.

Close

Stanza/chapter/text segment

Use the buttons at the top of the page to navigate between stanzas in a poem.

Information tab

Interactive tab

The text and translation are given here, with buttons to toggle whether the text is shown in the verse order or prose word order. Clicking on indiviudal words gives dictionary links, variant readings, kennings and notes, where relevant.

Full text tab

This is the text of the edition in a similar format to how the edition appears in the printed volumes.

Chapter/text segment

This view is also used for chapters and other text segments. Not all the headings shown are relevant to such sections.