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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Anon Pét 30VII

David McDougall (ed.) 2007, ‘Anonymous Poems, Pétrsdrápa 30’ in Margaret Clunies Ross (ed.), Poetry on Christian Subjects. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 7. Turnhout: Brepols, pp. 822-3.

Anonymous PoemsPétrsdrápa
293031

hefir ‘He knows’

hafa (verb): have

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ítra ‘of glorious’

ítr (adj.): glorious

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öll ‘all’

allr (adj.): all

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mætr ‘the excellent’

mætr (adj.; °compar. -ri/-ari, superl. -astr): honoured, respected

kennings

mætr megnstærir
‘the excellent increaser of strength ’
   = APOSTLE

the excellent increaser of strength → APOSTLE
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megn ‘of strength’

meginn (adj.; °megnan; compar. megnari, superl. megnastr): strength < megnstœrir (noun m.)

[4] megnstærir: megnstórir 621

kennings

mætr megnstærir
‘the excellent increaser of strength ’
   = APOSTLE

the excellent increaser of strength → APOSTLE

notes

[4] megnstærir ‘increaser of strength’: Emended from ms. ‘megnstorir’ to provide aðalhending with læra. Cf. LP: þrekstœrir ‘increaser of might, performer of great feats’.

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stærir ‘increaser’

stœrir (noun m.): increaser < megnstœrir (noun m.)

[4] megnstærir: megnstórir 621

kennings

mætr megnstærir
‘the excellent increaser of strength ’
   = APOSTLE

the excellent increaser of strength → APOSTLE

notes

[4] megnstærir ‘increaser of strength’: Emended from ms. ‘megnstorir’ to provide aðalhending with læra. Cf. LP: þrekstœrir ‘increaser of might, performer of great feats’.

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fólk ‘people’

folk (noun n.): people

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læra ‘instruct’

2. læra (verb): learned

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Breyzku ‘the frail’

breyskr (adj.; °compar. -ari): [frail]

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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holdi ‘flesh’

hold (noun n.; °-s; -): flesh

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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og ‘and’

3. ok (conj.): and, but; also

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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hetskum ‘the malignant’

hetskr (adj.): [malignant]

[5] hetskum: heimsku 621

kennings

hetskum fjanda heims
‘the malignant enemy of the world ’
   = Devil

the malignant enemy of the world → Devil

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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heims ‘of the world’

heimr (noun m.; °-s, dat. -i/-; -ar): home, abode; world

[6] heims stríðandi: ‘heim strida’ 621

kennings

hetskum fjanda heims
‘the malignant enemy of the world ’
   = Devil

the malignant enemy of the world → Devil

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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stríðandi ‘fighter’

stríðandi (noun m.): fighter

[6] heims stríðandi: ‘heim strida’ 621

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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fjanda ‘enemy’

fjándi (noun m.; °-a; fjándr/fjándar/fjándir): enemy, devil

kennings

hetskum fjanda heims
‘the malignant enemy of the world ’
   = Devil

the malignant enemy of the world → Devil

notes

[5-6]: Ms. ‘Breysku holldi ok heimsku’ lacks skothending; ms. ‘heim strida fianda’ lacks aðalhending. All eds emend ‘strida’ to a form of stríðandi ‘(one) fighting against (something), an opponent’, and assume loss of -s in heims by haplography. Stríðandi, pres. part. governs dat. holdi and fjanda. Kock (NN §1732) objects to Finnur Jónsson’s interpretation (Skj B): bekæmpende verdens skrøbelige kød og djævelens dumhed ‘fighting against the frail flesh of the world and the devil’s stupidity’, and proposes that ms. ‘heīskū’ is a scribal error for ‘hetskū’ (cf. OSwed. hætsker; Dan. hadsk; MLG hetisch ‘spiteful, savage, malignant’). This emendation provides skothending with breyzku (cf. AEW: breyskr from German *brautiska-) although an OIcel. adj. *hetskr is not otherwise attested. (Cf. Notes to rís 28/8; jungum 29/8.)

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mettaz ‘is sated’

metta (verb): [sated, is sated]

[7] mettaz: meti að 621

notes

[7] mettaz sætri saðning heilags anda ‘is sated with the sweet feast of the Holy Spirit’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends ‘meti at’ to mettar and reads mætter hann ... med den hellige ånds søde føde ‘he satiates ... with the sweet nourishment of the Holy Spirit’. Kock (NN §§1732, 2997C) argues that ms. ‑i is miscopied from an original ‑r, and proposes emendation to metr, which he takes as 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of metja ‘to lap up (food)’, a rare verb usually applied to animals. Finnur’s interpretation is nearer the mark, but the ms. sequence ‘meti at’ is more likely a mistranscription of an original reading mettaz (3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. passive refl. of metta / mettaðr, the late weak 2 verb derived from mettr, part. adj.; see CVC: metta; Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4: metta). Miscopying of <t> as <i> is a common scribal error, especially in the sequence ‑tt-, and mistranscription of <z> as <t> is equally commonplace. Miscopying of original mettaz as meti at may have been prompted by the separation of the first four letters of the word from the last two by a l.-division in the copyist’s exemplar. The parallel use of metta / mettr with dat. obj. is paralleled at, e.g., Sturl Hakkv 7/7-8II elris garm eski mettan ‘the hound of the alder [FIRE] sated with ash-wood’; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1926-8, metta: Bósarímur (ed. Jiriczek 1894) VI.6 metta hjarta angri ‘to fill the heart with sorrow’. On endingless ō-stem dat. sg. saðning, see ANG §376. Mettaz is used with saðning ... heilags anda as an alimentary metaphor traditionally applied to the study of scripture (see, e.g., Curtius 1953, 134-6), and ll. 7-8 complete the idea introduced in ll. 1-2: Peter knows the scriptures ‘without books’ because ‘he is sated with the feast of the Holy Spirit’. The satiety that is normally experienced by the student of scripture through reading – rumination on and ‘digestion’ of a text – comes to Peter through the divine gift of the Holy Spirit.

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saðning ‘feast’

saðning (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-): [feast]

notes

[7] mettaz sætri saðning heilags anda ‘is sated with the sweet feast of the Holy Spirit’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends ‘meti at’ to mettar and reads mætter hann ... med den hellige ånds søde føde ‘he satiates ... with the sweet nourishment of the Holy Spirit’. Kock (NN §§1732, 2997C) argues that ms. ‑i is miscopied from an original ‑r, and proposes emendation to metr, which he takes as 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of metja ‘to lap up (food)’, a rare verb usually applied to animals. Finnur’s interpretation is nearer the mark, but the ms. sequence ‘meti at’ is more likely a mistranscription of an original reading mettaz (3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. passive refl. of metta / mettaðr, the late weak 2 verb derived from mettr, part. adj.; see CVC: metta; Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4: metta). Miscopying of <t> as <i> is a common scribal error, especially in the sequence ‑tt-, and mistranscription of <z> as <t> is equally commonplace. Miscopying of original mettaz as meti at may have been prompted by the separation of the first four letters of the word from the last two by a l.-division in the copyist’s exemplar. The parallel use of metta / mettr with dat. obj. is paralleled at, e.g., Sturl Hakkv 7/7-8II elris garm eski mettan ‘the hound of the alder [FIRE] sated with ash-wood’; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1926-8, metta: Bósarímur (ed. Jiriczek 1894) VI.6 metta hjarta angri ‘to fill the heart with sorrow’. On endingless ō-stem dat. sg. saðning, see ANG §376. Mettaz is used with saðning ... heilags anda as an alimentary metaphor traditionally applied to the study of scripture (see, e.g., Curtius 1953, 134-6), and ll. 7-8 complete the idea introduced in ll. 1-2: Peter knows the scriptures ‘without books’ because ‘he is sated with the feast of the Holy Spirit’. The satiety that is normally experienced by the student of scripture through reading – rumination on and ‘digestion’ of a text – comes to Peter through the divine gift of the Holy Spirit.

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sætri ‘the sweet’

sœtr (adj.): sweet

notes

[7] mettaz sætri saðning heilags anda ‘is sated with the sweet feast of the Holy Spirit’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends ‘meti at’ to mettar and reads mætter hann ... med den hellige ånds søde føde ‘he satiates ... with the sweet nourishment of the Holy Spirit’. Kock (NN §§1732, 2997C) argues that ms. ‑i is miscopied from an original ‑r, and proposes emendation to metr, which he takes as 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of metja ‘to lap up (food)’, a rare verb usually applied to animals. Finnur’s interpretation is nearer the mark, but the ms. sequence ‘meti at’ is more likely a mistranscription of an original reading mettaz (3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. passive refl. of metta / mettaðr, the late weak 2 verb derived from mettr, part. adj.; see CVC: metta; Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4: metta). Miscopying of <t> as <i> is a common scribal error, especially in the sequence ‑tt-, and mistranscription of <z> as <t> is equally commonplace. Miscopying of original mettaz as meti at may have been prompted by the separation of the first four letters of the word from the last two by a l.-division in the copyist’s exemplar. The parallel use of metta / mettr with dat. obj. is paralleled at, e.g., Sturl Hakkv 7/7-8II elris garm eski mettan ‘the hound of the alder [FIRE] sated with ash-wood’; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1926-8, metta: Bósarímur (ed. Jiriczek 1894) VI.6 metta hjarta angri ‘to fill the heart with sorrow’. On endingless ō-stem dat. sg. saðning, see ANG §376. Mettaz is used with saðning ... heilags anda as an alimentary metaphor traditionally applied to the study of scripture (see, e.g., Curtius 1953, 134-6), and ll. 7-8 complete the idea introduced in ll. 1-2: Peter knows the scriptures ‘without books’ because ‘he is sated with the feast of the Holy Spirit’. The satiety that is normally experienced by the student of scripture through reading – rumination on and ‘digestion’ of a text – comes to Peter through the divine gift of the Holy Spirit.

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heilags ‘of the Holy’

heilagr (adj.; °helgan; compar. -ari, superl. -astr): holy, sacred

notes

[7] mettaz sætri saðning heilags anda ‘is sated with the sweet feast of the Holy Spirit’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends ‘meti at’ to mettar and reads mætter hann ... med den hellige ånds søde føde ‘he satiates ... with the sweet nourishment of the Holy Spirit’. Kock (NN §§1732, 2997C) argues that ms. ‑i is miscopied from an original ‑r, and proposes emendation to metr, which he takes as 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of metja ‘to lap up (food)’, a rare verb usually applied to animals. Finnur’s interpretation is nearer the mark, but the ms. sequence ‘meti at’ is more likely a mistranscription of an original reading mettaz (3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. passive refl. of metta / mettaðr, the late weak 2 verb derived from mettr, part. adj.; see CVC: metta; Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4: metta). Miscopying of <t> as <i> is a common scribal error, especially in the sequence ‑tt-, and mistranscription of <z> as <t> is equally commonplace. Miscopying of original mettaz as meti at may have been prompted by the separation of the first four letters of the word from the last two by a l.-division in the copyist’s exemplar. The parallel use of metta / mettr with dat. obj. is paralleled at, e.g., Sturl Hakkv 7/7-8II elris garm eski mettan ‘the hound of the alder [FIRE] sated with ash-wood’; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1926-8, metta: Bósarímur (ed. Jiriczek 1894) VI.6 metta hjarta angri ‘to fill the heart with sorrow’. On endingless ō-stem dat. sg. saðning, see ANG §376. Mettaz is used with saðning ... heilags anda as an alimentary metaphor traditionally applied to the study of scripture (see, e.g., Curtius 1953, 134-6), and ll. 7-8 complete the idea introduced in ll. 1-2: Peter knows the scriptures ‘without books’ because ‘he is sated with the feast of the Holy Spirit’. The satiety that is normally experienced by the student of scripture through reading – rumination on and ‘digestion’ of a text – comes to Peter through the divine gift of the Holy Spirit.

Close

anda ‘Spirit’

andi (noun m.; °-a; -ar): spirit, soul

notes

[7] mettaz sætri saðning heilags anda ‘is sated with the sweet feast of the Holy Spirit’: Finnur Jónsson (Skj B) emends ‘meti at’ to mettar and reads mætter hann ... med den hellige ånds søde føde ‘he satiates ... with the sweet nourishment of the Holy Spirit’. Kock (NN §§1732, 2997C) argues that ms. ‑i is miscopied from an original ‑r, and proposes emendation to metr, which he takes as 3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. of metja ‘to lap up (food)’, a rare verb usually applied to animals. Finnur’s interpretation is nearer the mark, but the ms. sequence ‘meti at’ is more likely a mistranscription of an original reading mettaz (3rd pers. sg. pres. indic. passive refl. of metta / mettaðr, the late weak 2 verb derived from mettr, part. adj.; see CVC: metta; Sigfús Blöndal 1920-4: metta). Miscopying of <t> as <i> is a common scribal error, especially in the sequence ‑tt-, and mistranscription of <z> as <t> is equally commonplace. Miscopying of original mettaz as meti at may have been prompted by the separation of the first four letters of the word from the last two by a l.-division in the copyist’s exemplar. The parallel use of metta / mettr with dat. obj. is paralleled at, e.g., Sturl Hakkv 7/7-8II elris garm eski mettan ‘the hound of the alder [FIRE] sated with ash-wood’; cf. Finnur Jónsson 1926-8, metta: Bósarímur (ed. Jiriczek 1894) VI.6 metta hjarta angri ‘to fill the heart with sorrow’. On endingless ō-stem dat. sg. saðning, see ANG §376. Mettaz is used with saðning ... heilags anda as an alimentary metaphor traditionally applied to the study of scripture (see, e.g., Curtius 1953, 134-6), and ll. 7-8 complete the idea introduced in ll. 1-2: Peter knows the scriptures ‘without books’ because ‘he is sated with the feast of the Holy Spirit’. The satiety that is normally experienced by the student of scripture through reading – rumination on and ‘digestion’ of a text – comes to Peter through the divine gift of the Holy Spirit.

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