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Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages

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Tindr Hákdr 4I

Russell Poole (ed.) 2012, ‘Tindr Hallkelsson, Hákonardrápa 4’ in Diana Whaley (ed.), Poetry from the Kings’ Sagas 1: From Mythical Times to c. 1035. Skaldic Poetry of the Scandinavian Middle Ages 1. Turnhout: Brepols, p. 345.

Tindr HallkelssonHákonardrápa
345

Vann ‘made’

2. vinna (verb): perform, work

notes

[1] vann ‘made’: Finnur Jónsson prints vanur as the 510 reading in Skj A, but this is not correct.

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á ‘on’

3. á (prep.): on, at

[1] á: at 510

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Vinða ‘of the Wends’

Vinðr (noun m.; °; vinðr/-ir): the Wends

[1] Vinða: vág at 61, níunda 510

notes

[1] sinni Vinða ‘the company of the Wends’: Interpreted thus by most eds (Jón Þorkelsson 1884, 56-7 is an exception). This reference is a key one for scholarly discussions of the Jómsvíkingar (Finnur Jónsson 1910-12, 169-71; ÍF 26, cxi-cxii). It confirms the involvement of Wendish troops from the Baltic alongside the Danish forces mentioned at st. 6/4, but it does not either prove or disprove the existence of the warrior fraternity known in later sources (though not in contemporary poetry) as the Jómsvíkingar.

Close

sinni ‘the company’

1. sinni (noun m.; °-a; -ar): companion

[1] sinni: mǫnnum 54, Bb

notes

[1] sinni Vinða ‘the company of the Wends’: Interpreted thus by most eds (Jón Þorkelsson 1884, 56-7 is an exception). This reference is a key one for scholarly discussions of the Jómsvíkingar (Finnur Jónsson 1910-12, 169-71; ÍF 26, cxi-cxii). It confirms the involvement of Wendish troops from the Baltic alongside the Danish forces mentioned at st. 6/4, but it does not either prove or disprove the existence of the warrior fraternity known in later sources (though not in contemporary poetry) as the Jómsvíkingar.

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verð ‘of the meal’

1. verðr (noun m.; °dat. -i): food < verðbjóðr (noun m.)1. verðr (noun m.; °dat. -i): food < verðbjóðr (noun m.)

[2] verð‑: sið 54, við Bb

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
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verð ‘of the meal’

1. verðr (noun m.; °dat. -i): food < verðbjóðr (noun m.)1. verðr (noun m.; °dat. -i): food < verðbjóðr (noun m.)

[2] verð‑: sið 54, við Bb

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
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bjóðr ‘The offerer’

2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < verðbjóðr (noun m.)2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < siðbjóðr (noun m.)2. bjóðr (noun m.): inviter < viðbjóðr (noun m.)

[2] ‑bjóðr: ‑bjóði 510

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

Hugins ‘of Huginn’

1. Huginn (noun m.): Huginn

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

Hugins ‘of Huginn’

1. Huginn (noun m.): Huginn

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

Hugins ‘of Huginn’

1. Huginn (noun m.): Huginn

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

ferðar ‘of the flock’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[2] ferðar: ferðir J1ˣ, ‘f[…]’ J2ˣ

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

ferðar ‘of the flock’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[2] ferðar: ferðir J1ˣ, ‘f[…]’ J2ˣ

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

ferðar ‘of the flock’

ferð (noun f.; °-ar; -ir/-arMork 196¹²)): host, journey

[2] ferðar: ferðir J1ˣ, ‘f[…]’ J2ˣ

kennings

Ferðar Hugins verðbjóðr
‘meal-offerer of the flock of Huginn’
   = WARRIOR = Hákon

the flock of Huginn → RAVENS
the meal of RAVENS → CORPSES
The offerer of CORPSES → WARRIOR = Hákon
Close

sól ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < sólgagarr (noun m.)

kennings

seilar sólgagarr
‘sun-dog of the strap’
   = SWORD

the sun of the strap → SHIELD
the dog of the SHIELD → SWORD

notes

[3] seilar sólgagarr ‘the dog of the sun of the strap [(lit. ‘sun-dog of the strap’) SHIELD > SWORD]’:  Seil f. here seems to denote the strap or thong by which a shield is held, and sól ‘sun’ is suitable as a base-word to a shield-kenning because of its circular shape and brightness (Meissner 167-8). For further sword-kennings with a base-word meaning ‘wolf, dog’, see Meissner 155.

Close

sól ‘of the sun’

sól (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir): sun < sólgagarr (noun m.)

kennings

seilar sólgagarr
‘sun-dog of the strap’
   = SWORD

the sun of the strap → SHIELD
the dog of the SHIELD → SWORD

notes

[3] seilar sólgagarr ‘the dog of the sun of the strap [(lit. ‘sun-dog of the strap’) SHIELD > SWORD]’:  Seil f. here seems to denote the strap or thong by which a shield is held, and sól ‘sun’ is suitable as a base-word to a shield-kenning because of its circular shape and brightness (Meissner 167-8). For further sword-kennings with a base-word meaning ‘wolf, dog’, see Meissner 155.

Close

gagarr ‘the dog’

gagarr (noun m.): dog < sólgagarr (noun m.)

kennings

seilar sólgagarr
‘sun-dog of the strap’
   = SWORD

the sun of the strap → SHIELD
the dog of the SHIELD → SWORD

notes

[3] seilar sólgagarr ‘the dog of the sun of the strap [(lit. ‘sun-dog of the strap’) SHIELD > SWORD]’:  Seil f. here seems to denote the strap or thong by which a shield is held, and sól ‘sun’ is suitable as a base-word to a shield-kenning because of its circular shape and brightness (Meissner 167-8). For further sword-kennings with a base-word meaning ‘wolf, dog’, see Meissner 155.

Close

seilar ‘of the strap’

seil (noun f.; °; dat. -um): strap

[3] seilar: sveita 510

kennings

seilar sólgagarr
‘sun-dog of the strap’
   = SWORD

the sun of the strap → SHIELD
the dog of the SHIELD → SWORD

notes

[3] seilar sólgagarr ‘the dog of the sun of the strap [(lit. ‘sun-dog of the strap’) SHIELD > SWORD]’:  Seil f. here seems to denote the strap or thong by which a shield is held, and sól ‘sun’ is suitable as a base-word to a shield-kenning because of its circular shape and brightness (Meissner 167-8). For further sword-kennings with a base-word meaning ‘wolf, dog’, see Meissner 155.

Close

seilar ‘of the strap’

seil (noun f.; °; dat. -um): strap

[3] seilar: sveita 510

kennings

seilar sólgagarr
‘sun-dog of the strap’
   = SWORD

the sun of the strap → SHIELD
the dog of the SHIELD → SWORD

notes

[3] seilar sólgagarr ‘the dog of the sun of the strap [(lit. ‘sun-dog of the strap’) SHIELD > SWORD]’:  Seil f. here seems to denote the strap or thong by which a shield is held, and sól ‘sun’ is suitable as a base-word to a shield-kenning because of its circular shape and brightness (Meissner 167-8). For further sword-kennings with a base-word meaning ‘wolf, dog’, see Meissner 155.

Close

sverðs ‘of the sword’

sverð (noun n.; °-s; -): sword

[4] sverðs: sverð J1ˣ, 510

kennings

spor eggja sverðs
‘trails of the edges of the sword ’
   = WOUNDS

trails of the edges of the sword → WOUNDS
Close

eggja ‘of the edges’

1. egg (noun f.; °-jar, dat. -ju/-): edge, blade

[4] eggja: eggjar J1ˣ, 54, Bb

kennings

spor eggja sverðs
‘trails of the edges of the sword ’
   = WOUNDS

trails of the edges of the sword → WOUNDS
Close

spor ‘trails’

spor (noun n.; °-s; -): track

kennings

spor eggja sverðs
‘trails of the edges of the sword ’
   = WOUNDS

trails of the edges of the sword → WOUNDS
Close

leggi ‘limbs’

leggr (noun m.; °-jar, dat. -; -ir): limb

[4] leggi: leggja 61

notes

[4] leggi ‘limbs’: Comparing ÞKolb Eirdr 15/4, Kock (NN §2755) argues for leggja ‘lay, place’, the reading of 61, but the parallel is only partial.

Close

áðr ‘before’

áðr (adv.; °//): before

[5] áðr: at 510

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hjǫr ‘sword’

hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrmeiðr (noun m.)hjǫrr (noun m.): sword < hjǫrmeiðir (noun m.)hjǫrr (noun m.): sword

kennings

hjǫrmeiðar
‘sword-trees ’
   = WARRIORS

sword-trees → WARRIORS
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meðir ‘’

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meiðar ‘trees’

meiðr (noun m.): beam, tree < hjǫrmeiðr (noun m.)

[5] ‑meiðar: meiðir 39, F, ‘meðir’ J1ˣ

kennings

hjǫrmeiðar
‘sword-trees ’
   = WARRIORS

sword-trees → WARRIORS
Close

hriðða ‘’

Close

hrjóða ‘clear’

1. hrjóða (verb): clear, destroy

[5] hrjóða: ‘hriðða’ F, ‘h[...]’ 510

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hatting ‘’

Close

hætting ‘a menace’

hætting (noun f.): [danger, a menace]

[6] hætting: so J1ˣ, J2ˣ, 54, Bb, 510, ‘hatting’ Kˣ, hœting 39, F, ‘hetting’ 61

Close

vas ‘was’

2. vera (verb): be, is, was, were, are, am

[6] vas (‘var’): varð Bb

Close

mætti ‘could’

mega (verb): may, might

[6] mætti: mœti 39, F, mátti J1ˣ

Close

leiðar ‘of the fleet’

leið (noun f.; °-ar, dat. -u/-; -ir/-ar): path, way

[7] leiðar: so 39, F, 61, 510, liðar Kˣ, J2ˣ, leiðir J1ˣ, leiðing 54, Bb

notes

[7] leiðar ‘of the fleet’: Most scholars interpret this as ‘levy’, equivalent to leiðangr ‘levy’ (comparing st. 9/4). Thus Finnur Jónsson (LP: leið 2) glosses the word as leding, ledingsfærd, hærtog tilsøs ‘levy, voyage of the levy, military expedition at sea’, a notion extensively canvassed by Malmros (1985; 1999; 2002). But the evidence for this technical sense at so early a date is insecure (Jesch 2001a, 196-8).

Close

liðs ‘for the army’

lið (noun n.; °-s; -): retinue, troop

notes

[8] liðs ‘for the army’: Lit. ‘of the army’. Finnur Jónsson (Hkr 1893-1901, IV) identifies the lið with Hákon’s personal retinue; compare Jesch (2001a, 188): ‘troop or retinue accompanying a shipborne war-leader’, presumably also acting as his crew.

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halfan ‘twenty’

halfr (adj.): half

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tugg ‘’

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tyg ‘’

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Interactive view: tap on words in the text for notes and glosses

In Hkr, the stanza is cited after the battle is over, and the Jómsvíkingar defeated. In Jvs, twenty-five of their ships have been cleared; sts 4-11 are cited virtually continuously.

[5-8]: (a) Adopted in this edn is the interpretation of Reichardt (1928, 50-2), followed by Bjarni Aðalbjarnarson (ÍF 26), where liðs leiðar ‘the army of the fleet’ is treated as an attributive gen. depending on hætting ‘menace, danger’. Ms. meiðar is retained as a pl. form of meiðr ‘tree’, with the verb mætti (3rd pers. pret. subj.) ‘could’ correspondingly a pl. Kennings with this base-word are exceedingly common (cf. LP: meiðr). Other possibilities are as follows. (b) Liðs leiðar could be taken as governing skeiðar, hence ‘warships belonging to the levied army’ (so Fms 12; SHI 11; Jón Þorkelsson 1884, 56). (c) Liðs could be taken with hætting ‘menace for the army’ and leiðar as part of a kenning leiðar hjǫrmeiðir ‘destroyer of the sword-path [(lit. ‘sword-destroyer of the path’) SHIELD > WARRIOR]’ (so Finnur Jónsson 1886b, 333; cf. Hkr 1893-1901, IV; Skj B). However, this entails preferring the reading of 39 and F, meiðir ‘destroyer’, and since hjǫrmeiðir ‘sword-destroyer’ is in itself a standard kenning for ‘warrior’ there is no necessity for kenning inversion and complex word order (as pointed out by Kock, NN §431; cf. Reichardt 1928, 51); Reichardt additionally noted that leið is not elsewhere attested in kennings for ‘shield’. (c) Kock (NN §431) opted for a cpd, with tmesis, of leiðar with skeið, equating this with leiðangrsskip ‘ship obtained through a levy’. He then linked liðs with the verb hrjóða, explaining this as ‘to clear of the army, empty of men’; this solution is rejected by Reichardt (1928, 52). 

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